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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C.  20549
 
FORM 10-K 

(Mark One) 
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934 FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31, 2019.
OR
 
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934 FOR THE TRANSITION PERIOD FROM                 TO                 .
 
Commission File Number: 001-33807
 
EchoStar Corporation
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter) 
Nevada
 
26-1232727
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)
 
(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
 
 
 
 
 
100 Inverness Terrace East,
Englewood,
Colorado
 
80112-5308
(Address of principal executive offices)
 
(Zip Code)
 
 
 
 
 
(303)
706-4000
 
 
Not Applicable
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
 
(Former name, former address and former fiscal year, if changed since last report)
 
 
 
 
 
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
 
 
Class A common stock
 $0.001 par value
 
The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC
(Title of each class)
 
(Name of each exchange on which registered)
SATS
 
 
(Ticker symbol)
 
 
 
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
 
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.  Yes No
 
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.  Yes No
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports) and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.  Yes   No
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).  Yes   No 
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company.  See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.  (Check one):
Large accelerated filer
Accelerated filer 
Emerging growth company
Non-accelerated filer
Smaller reporting company
 
 
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).  Yes No
 
As of June 30, 2019, the aggregate market value of Class A common stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant was $2.1 billion based upon the closing price of the Class A common stock as reported on the NASDAQ Global Select Market as of the close of business on that date.
 
As of February 10, 2020, the registrant’s outstanding common stock consisted of 50,115,719 shares of Class A common stock and 47,687,039 shares of Class B common stock, each $0.001 par value.

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of the registrant’s definitive Proxy Statement to be filed in connection with its 2020 Annual Meeting of Shareholders are incorporated by reference in Part III.



TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 




DISCLOSURE REGARDING FORWARD LOOKING STATEMENTS

This Annual Report on Form 10-K (“Form 10-K”) contains “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995, Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, including but not limited to statements about our estimates, expectations, plans, objectives, strategies, financial condition, expected impact of regulatory developments and legal proceedings, opportunities in our industries and businesses and other trends and projections for the next fiscal quarter and beyond. All statements, other than statements of historical facts, may be forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements may also be identified by words such as “anticipate,” “intend,” “plan,” “goal,” “seek,” “believe,” “estimate,” “expect,” “predict,” “continue,” “future,” “will,” “would,” “could,” “can,” “may” and similar terms.  These forward-looking statements are based on information available to us as of the date of this Form 10-K and represent management’s current views and assumptions.  Forward-looking statements are not guarantees of future performance, events or results and involve potential known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors, many of which may be beyond our control and may pose a risk to our operating and financial condition.  Accordingly, actual performance, events or results could differ materially from those expressed or implied in the forward-looking statements due to a number of factors including, but not limited to:
 
significant risks related to the construction and operation of our satellites, such as the risk of not being able to timely complete the construction of or material malfunction on one or more of our satellites, changes in the space weather environment that could interfere with the operation of our satellites and our general lack of commercial insurance coverage on our satellites;
our ability to implement and/or realize benefits of our domestic and/or international investments, commercial alliances, partnerships, joint ventures, acquisitions, dispositions and other strategic initiatives and transactions including, without limitation, the BSS Transaction (as defined herein);
lawsuits relating to the BSS Transaction could result in substantial costs;
our ability to realize the anticipated benefits of our current satellites and any future satellite we may construct or acquire;
risks related to our foreign operations and other uncertainties associated with doing business internationally, including changes in foreign exchange rates between foreign currencies and the United States dollar, economic instability, political disturbances and the consequences of being subject to foreign regulation and foreign legal proceedings, including increased operations costs and potential fines and penalties for violations, which may be substantial;
the failure of third-party providers of components, manufacturing, installation services and customer support services to appropriately deliver the contracted goods or services; and
our ability to bring advanced technologies to market to keep pace with our customers and competitors.
 
Other factors that could cause or contribute to such differences include, but are not limited to, those discussed in Part I, Item 1A. Risk Factors and Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations of this Form 10-K and those discussed in other documents we file with the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”).
 
All cautionary statements made herein should be read as being applicable to all forward-looking statements wherever they appear. Investors should consider the risks and uncertainties described herein and should not place undue reliance on any forward-looking statements. We do not undertake, and specifically disclaim, any obligation to publicly release the results of any revisions that may be made to any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, except as required by law.
 
Although we believe that the expectations reflected in any forward-looking statements are reasonable, we cannot guarantee future results, events, levels of activity, performance or achievements. We do not assume responsibility for the accuracy and completeness of any forward-looking statements. We assume no responsibility for updating forward-looking information contained or incorporated by reference herein or in any documents we file with the SEC, except as required by law.


i


Should one or more of the risks or uncertainties described herein or in any documents we file with the SEC occur, or should underlying assumptions prove incorrect, our actual results and plans could differ materially from those expressed in any forward-looking statements.



PART I
 
ITEM 1.     BUSINESS
 
OVERVIEW
 
EchoStar Corporation (which, together with its subsidiaries, is referred to as “EchoStar,” the “Company,” “we,” “us” and “our”) is a holding company that was organized in October 2007 as a corporation under the laws of the State of Nevada and has operated as a separately traded public company from DISH Network Corporation (“DISH”) since 2008. A substantial majority of the voting power of the shares of each of EchoStar Corporation and DISH is owned beneficially by Charles W. Ergen, our Chairman, and by certain entities established for the benefit of his family. Our Class A common stock is publicly traded on the NASDAQ Global Select Market (“NASDAQ”) under the symbol “SATS.”
 
We are a global provider of broadband satellite technologies, broadband internet services for consumer customers, which include home and small to medium-sized businesses, and satellite services. We also deliver innovative network technologies, managed services and communications solutions for enterprise customers, which include aeronautical and government enterprises.

Our industry continues to evolve with the increasing worldwide demand for broadband internet access for information, entertainment and commerce. In addition to fiber and wireless systems, other technologies such as geostationary high throughput satellites, low-earth orbit (“LEO”) networks, medium-earth orbit (“MEO”) systems, balloons and High Altitude Platform Systems are expected to play significant roles in enabling global broadband access, networks and services. We intend to use our expertise, technologies, capital, investments, global presence, relationships and other capabilities to continue to provide broadband internet systems, equipment, networks and services for information, the internet-of-things, entertainment and commerce in North America and internationally for consumer and enterprise customers. We are closely tracking the developments in next-generation satellite businesses, and we are seeking to utilize our services, technologies, licenses and expertise to find new commercial opportunities for our business.

We currently operate in two business segments:  Hughes and ESS. These segments are consistent with the way we make decisions regarding the allocation of resources, as well as how operating results are reviewed by our chief operating decision maker, who is the Company’s Chief Executive Officer.

Our operations also include various corporate departments (primarily Executive, Treasury, Strategic Development, Human Resources, IT, Finance, Accounting, Real Estate and Legal) and other activities that have not been assigned to our operating segments such as costs incurred in certain satellite development programs and other business development activities, and gains or losses from certain of our investments. These activities, costs and income, as well as eliminations of intersegment transactions, are accounted for in Corporate and Other in our segment reporting.

In May 2019, we and one of our former subsidiaries, EchoStar BSS Corporation (“BSS Corp.”), entered into a master transaction agreement (the “Master Transaction Agreement”) with DISH and a wholly-owned subsidiary of DISH (“Merger Sub”). Pursuant to the terms of the Master Transaction Agreement, on September 10, 2019: (i) we transferred to BSS Corp. certain real property and the various businesses, products, licenses, technology, revenues, billings, operating activities, assets and liabilities primarily relating to the former portion of our ESS segment that managed, marketed and provided (1) broadcast satellite services primarily to DISH and its subsidiaries (together with DISH, “DISH Network”) and our joint venture Dish Mexico, S. de R.L. de C.V., (“Dish Mexico”) and its subsidiaries and (2) telemetry, tracking and control (“TT&C”) services for satellites owned by DISH Network and a portion of our other businesses (collectively, the “BSS Business”); (ii) we distributed to each holder of shares of our Class A or Class B common stock entitled to receive consideration in the transaction an amount of shares of common stock of BSS Corp., par value $0.001 per share (“BSS Common Stock”), equal to one share of BSS Common Stock for each share of our Class A or Class B common stock owned by such stockholder (the “Distribution”); and (iii) immediately after the Distribution, (1) Merger Sub merged with and into BSS Corp. (the “Merger”), such that BSS Corp. became a wholly-owned subsidiary of DISH and DISH owns and operates the BSS Business, and (2) each issued and outstanding share of BSS Common Stock owned by EchoStar stockholders was converted into the right to receive 0.23523769 shares of DISH Class A common stock, par value $0.001 per share (“DISH Common Stock”) ((i) - (iii) collectively, the “BSS Transaction”).

In connection with the BSS Transaction, we and DISH Network agreed to indemnify each other against certain losses with respect to breaches of certain representations and covenants and certain retained and assumed liabilities, respectively. Additionally, we and DISH and certain of our and their subsidiaries (i) entered into certain customary

1


agreements covering, among other things, matters relating to taxes, employees, intellectual property and the provision of transitional services; (ii) terminated certain previously existing agreements; and (iii) amended certain existing agreements and entered into certain new agreements pursuant to which we and DISH Network will obtain and provide certain products, services and rights from and to each other.

The BSS Transaction was structured in a manner intended to be tax-free to us and our stockholders for U.S. federal income tax purposes and was accounted for as a spin-off to our shareholders as we did not receive any consideration. Following the consummation of the BSS Transaction, we no longer operate the BSS Business, which was a substantial portion of our ESS segment. As a result of the BSS Transaction, the financial results of the BSS Business, except for certain real estate that transferred in the transaction, are presented as discontinued operations and, as such, excluded from continuing operations and segment results for all periods presented in our accompanying Consolidated Financial Statements and notes thereto in Item 15 of this Form 10-K (“Accompanying Consolidated Financial Statements”).

During 2017, we and certain of our subsidiaries entered into a share exchange agreement (the “Share Exchange Agreement”) with DISH and certain of its subsidiaries. We, and certain of our subsidiaries, received all the shares of the Hughes Retail Preferred Tracking Stock previously issued by us and one of our subsidiaries (together, the “Tracking Stock”) in exchange for 100% of the equity interests of certain of our subsidiaries that held substantially all of our former EchoStar Technologies businesses and certain other assets (collectively, the “Share Exchange”). Following the consummation of the Share Exchange, we no longer operate our former EchoStar Technologies businesses, the Tracking Stock was retired and is no longer outstanding, and all agreements, arrangements and policy statements with respect to the Tracking Stock terminated. As a result of the Share Exchange, the financial results of the EchoStar Technologies businesses are presented as discontinued operations and, as such, have been excluded from continuing operations and segment results for all periods presented in our Accompanying Consolidated Financial Statements.

See Note 5 in our Accompanying Consolidated Financial Statements for further detail of our discontinued operations.

The Accompanying Consolidated Financial Statements have been prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States (“U.S. GAAP”).  All amounts reference results from continuing operations unless otherwise noted and are expressed in thousands of U.S. dollars, except share and per share amounts and unless otherwise noted. Additionally, certain prior period amounts have been adjusted to conform to the current period presentation.

BUSINESS STRATEGIES
 
Capitalize on domestic and international demand for broadband services.  We intend to capitalize on the domestic and international demand for satellite-delivered broadband internet services and enterprise solutions by utilizing, among other things, our industry expertise, technology leadership, increased satellite capacity, access to spectrum resources, licenses and high-quality, reliable service to drive growth in consumer subscribers and enterprise customers. We also intend to continue to selectively explore opportunities to pursue investments, commercial alliances, partnerships, joint ventures, acquisitions, dispositions and other strategic initiatives and transactions, domestically and internationally that we believe may allow us to increase our market share, increase our satellite capacity, expand into new markets, obtain new customers, broaden our portfolio of services, products and intellectual property, make our business more valuable, align us for future growth and expansion, maximize the return on our investments and strengthen our business and relationships with our customers.
 
Expand satellite capacity and related infrastructure.  During 2019, we continued the design and construction of a new, next-generation, high throughput geostationary satellite, with a planned 2021 launch, that is primarily intended to provide additional capacity for our HughesNet satellite internet service (the “HughesNet service”) in North, Central and South America as well as enterprise services. We expect that our expertise in the identification, acquisition and development of satellite spectrum and orbital rights and satellite operations, together with our increased satellite capacity and existing, acquired or developed infrastructure, will continue to provide opportunities in domestic and international markets to enhance services to our existing and additional customers. We currently provide satellite broadband internet service in several Central and South American countries.  We intend to continue to provide services to a broad customer base, including providers of satellite-delivered broadband, corporate communications and government services.

Continue to selectively explore new domestic and international strategic initiatives. We intend to continue to selectively explore opportunities to pursue investments, commercial alliances, partnerships, joint ventures, acquisitions, dispositions and other strategic initiatives and transactions, domestically and internationally, that we believe may allow

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us to increase our existing market share, increase our satellite capacity, expand into new markets and new customers, broaden our portfolio of services, products and intellectual property and strengthen our relationships with our customers. For example, our joint ventures with Al Yah Satellite Communications Company PrJSC (“Yahsat”) enable us to provide satellite broadband services across Africa, the Middle East and southwest Asia and expand our broadband internet services and enterprise solutions in Brazil.

Continue development of S-band and other hybrid spectrum resources.  We intend to continue to explore the development and deployment of S-band technologies that we expect will reduce the cost of satellite communications for internet of things, machine-to-machine communications, public protection, disaster relief and other end-to-end services worldwide and the integration of our products and services into new global, hybrid networks that leverage multiple satellites and terrestrial technologies. We believe we remain in a unique position to deploy a mobile satellite service (“MSS”)/complementary ground component (“CGC”) network in the European Union and its member states (“EU”) through our EchoStar XXI satellite, which was placed into service in November 2017, and the EUTELSAT 10A (“W2A”) payload.  We have further aligned ourselves to continue to develop the S-band spectrum globally by acquiring Sirion Global Pty Ltd., which we have renamed EchoStar Global Australia Pty Ltd (“EchoStar Global”), which holds global S-band non-geostationary satellite spectrum rights for MSS, and entering into a contract with Tyvak Nano-Satellite Systems, Inc. for the design and construction of S-band nano-satellites, with expected launches in the first half of 2020. In addition, in November 2019, we were granted an S-band spectrum license for terrestrial rights in Mexico.
 
Develop improved and new technologies.  Our engineering capabilities provide us with the opportunity to develop and deploy cutting edge technologies, license our technologies to others and maintain a leading technological position in the industries in which we are active. 

BUSINESS SEGMENTS

HUGHES SEGMENT
 
Our Products and Services
 
Our Hughes segment is a global provider of broadband satellite technologies and broadband internet services to consumer customers and broadband network technologies, managed services, equipment, hardware, satellite services and communications solutions to consumer and enterprise customers. The Hughes segment also designs, provides and installs gateway and terminal equipment to customers for other satellite systems. In addition, our Hughes segment designs, develops, constructs and provides telecommunication networks comprising satellite ground segment systems and terminals to mobile system operators and our enterprise customers.

We incorporate advances in technology to reduce costs and to increase the functionality and reliability of our products and services.  Through advanced and proprietary methodologies, technologies, software and techniques, we continue to improve the efficiency of our networks.  We invest in technologies to enhance our system and network management capabilities, specifically our managed services for enterprises.  We also continue to invest in next generation technologies that can be applied to our future products and services.

We continue to focus our efforts on growing our consumer revenue by maximizing utilization of our existing satellites while planning for new satellites to be launched or acquired. Our consumer revenue growth depends on our success in adding new and retaining existing subscribers in our domestic and international markets across wholesale and retail channels. The growth of our enterprise businesses relies heavily on global economic conditions and the competitive landscape for pricing relative to competitors and alternative technologies. Service costs related to ongoing support for our direct and indirect customers and partners are typically impacted most significantly by our growth.
 
Our Hughes segment currently uses capacity from three of our satellites (the SPACEWAY 3 satellite, the EchoStar XVII satellite and the EchoStar XIX satellite), our Al Yah 3 Brazilian payload and additional satellite capacity acquired from third-party providers to provide services to our customers. Growth of our consumer subscriber base continues to be constrained in areas where we are nearing or have reached maximum capacity.  While these constraints are expected to be resolved when we launch new satellites, we continue to focus on revenue growth in all areas and consumer subscriber growth in the areas where we have available capacity. 

In May 2019, we entered into an agreement with Al Yah Satellite Communications Company PrJSC (“Yahsat”) pursuant to which, in November 2019, Yahsat contributed its satellite communications services business in Brazil to us in

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exchange for a 20% ownership interest in our existing Brazilian subsidiary that conducts our satellite communications services business in Brazil. The combined business provides broadband internet services and enterprise solutions in Brazil using the Telesat T19V satellite, the Eutelsat 65W satellite and Yahsat’s Al Yah 3 satellite.  Under the terms of the agreement, Yahsat may also acquire, for further cash investments, additional minority ownership interests in the business in the future provided certain conditions are met.

In May 2019, we also entered into an agreement with Bharti Airtel Limited (“BAL”) and its subsidiary, Bharti Airtel Services Limited (together with BAL, “Bharti”), pursuant to which Bharti will contribute its very small aperture terminal (“VSAT”) telecommunications services and hardware business in India to our two existing Indian subsidiaries that conduct our VSAT services and hardware business. The combined entities will provide broadband satellite and hybrid solutions for enterprise networks. Upon consummation of the transaction, Bharti will have a 33% ownership interest in the combined business. The completion of the transaction is subject to customary regulatory approvals and closing conditions. No assurance can be given that the transaction will be consummated on the terms agreed to or at all.

In August 2018, we entered into an agreement with Yahsat to establish a new entity, Broadband Connectivity Solutions (Restricted) Limited (together with its subsidiaries, “BCS”), to provide commercial Ka-band satellite broadband services across Africa, the Middle East and southwest Asia operating over Yahsat's Al Yah 2 and Al Yah 3 Ka-band satellites. The transaction was consummated in December 2018 when we invested $100.0 million in cash in exchange for a 20% interest in BCS. Under the terms of the agreement, we may also acquire, for further cash investments, additional ownership interests in BCS in the future provided certain conditions are met. We supply network operations and management services and equipment to BCS.

In August 2017, we entered into a contract for the design and construction of the EchoStar XXIV satellite, a new, next-generation, high throughput geostationary satellite, with a planned 2021 launch. The EchoStar XXIV satellite is primarily intended to provide additional capacity for our HughesNet service in North, Central and South America as well as enterprise broadband services. If the manufacture and/or delivery of the EchoStar XXIV satellite is not met or is delayed, such failure could have a material adverse impact on our business operations, future revenues, financial position and prospects and our planned expansion of satellite broadband services throughout North, South and Central America. Capital expenditures associated with the construction and launch of the EchoStar XXIV satellite are included in Corporate and Other in our segment reporting.
 
In March 2017, we and DISH Network entered into a master service agreement (the “Hughes Broadband MSA”). Pursuant to the Hughes Broadband MSA, DISH Network, among other things, (i) has the right, but not the obligation, to market, promote and solicit orders and upgrades for our HughesNet service and related equipment and other telecommunication services; and (ii) installs HughesNet service equipment with respect to activations generated by DISH Network.  As a result of the Hughes Broadband MSA, we have not earned, and do not expect to earn in the future, significant equipment revenue from our distribution agreement with DISH Network. We expect churn in the existing wholesale subscribers to continue to reduce Services and other revenue in the future.

We continue our efforts to expand our consumer satellite services business outside of the U.S. We have been delivering high-speed consumer satellite broadband services in Brazil since July 2016 and are also providing satellite broadband internet service in several other Central and South American countries. Additionally, in September 2015, we entered into 15-year agreements with affiliates of Telesat Canada for Ka-band capacity on the Telesat T19V satellite located at the 63 degree west longitude orbital location, which was launched in July 2018. Telesat T19V was placed in service during the fourth quarter of 2018 and augmented the capacity being provided by the EUTELSAT 65 West A satellite and the EchoStar XIX satellite in Central and South America.

Our Customers
 
Our enterprise customers include, but are not limited to, lottery agencies, gas station operators, aircraft connectivity providers and companies with multi-branch networks that rely on satellite or terrestrial networks for critical communication across wide geographies. Most of our enterprise customers have contracts with us for the services they purchase. Our Hughes segment also designs, provides and installs gateway and terminal equipment to customers for other satellite systems and provides satellite ground segment systems and terminals for other satellite systems, including mobile system operators. Developments toward the launch of next-generation satellite systems, including LEO, MEO and geostationary systems, could provide additional opportunities to drive the demand for our equipment, hardware, technology and services.


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Our Competition
 
Our industry is highly competitive.  As a global provider of network technologies, products and services, our Hughes segment competes with a large number of telecommunications service providers, which puts pressure on prices and margins.  To compete effectively, we emphasize our network quality, customization capability, offering of networks as a turnkey managed service, position as a single point of contact for products and services and competitive prices.
 
In our consumer broadband satellite technologies and internet services markets, we compete against traditional telecommunications and wireless carriers, other satellite internet providers, as well as digital subscriber line (“DSL”), fiber and cable internet service providers offering competitive services in many markets we seek to serve.  Cost, speed and accessibility are key determining factors in the selection of a service provider by the consumer.  Our primary satellite competitor in our North American consumer market is ViaSat Communications, Inc., which is owned by ViaSat, Inc. (“ViaSat”).  ViaSat has also announced plans to enter the South and Central American consumer markets.  We seek to differentiate ourselves based on the ubiquitous availability of our service, quality, proprietary technology, and distribution channels.
 
In our enterprise markets, we compete against providers of satellite-based and terrestrial-based networks, including fiber, DSL, cable modem service, multiprotocol label switching and interest protocol-based virtual private networks.

Our principal competitors for the supply of very-small-aperture terminal satellite networks are Gilat Satellite Networks Ltd, ViaSat, and ST Engineering iDirect, Inc.  To differentiate ourselves from our competitors, we emphasize particular technological features of our products and services, our ability to customize networks and perform desired development work and the quality of our customer service.  We also face competition from resellers and numerous local companies who purchase equipment and sell services to local customers, including domestic and international telecommunications operators, cable companies and other major carriers.

Manufacturing
 
Certain products in our Hughes segment are assembled at our facilities in Maryland and we outsource a significant portion of the manufacturing of our products to third parties.  We believe that the manufacturing facilities used by our Hughes segment have sufficient capacity to handle current demand.  We adjust our capacity based on our production requirements.  We also work with third-party vendors for the development and manufacture of components that are integrated into our products.  We develop dual sourcing capabilities for critical parts when practical and we evaluate outsourced subcontract vendors on a periodic basis.  Our operations group, together with our engineering group, works with our vendors and subcontractors to reduce development costs, to increase production efficiency, and to obtain components at lower prices.

ESS SEGMENT
 
Our Services
 
Our ESS segment provides satellite services on a full-time and/or occasional-use basis to U.S. government service providers, internet service providers, broadcast news organizations, content providers and private enterprise customers. We operate our ESS business using primarily the EchoStar IX satellite and the EchoStar 105/SES-11 satellite and related infrastructure. Revenue in our ESS segment depends largely on our ability to continuously make use of our available satellite capacity with existing customers and our ability to enter into commercial relationships with new customers. Our ESS segment, like others in the fixed satellite services industry, has encountered, and may continue to encounter, negative pressure on transponder rates and demand.

Our Customers
 
Our satellite capacity is currently used by our customers for a variety of applications, including:
 
Fixed Satellite Services (“FSS”).  We provide satellite services to broadcast news organizations, internet service providers and content providers who use our satellites to deliver programming and internet.  Our satellites are also used for the transmission of live sporting events, internet access, disaster recovery and satellite news gathering services.
 
Government Services.  We provide satellite and technical services to U.S. government service providers. 

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Network Services.  We provide satellite services to companies for private networks that allow delivery of video and data services for corporate communications.  Our satellites can be used for point-to-point or point to multi-point communications.
 
Our Competition
 
Our ESS segment competes against larger, well-established satellite service companies, such as Intelsat S.A., SES S.A., Telesat and Eutelsat Communications S.A., in an industry that is characterized by long-term contracts and high costs for customers to change service providers.  Several of our competitors maintain key North American and other international orbital slots that may further limit our ability to compete and offer competitive pricing.

OTHER BUSINESS OPPORTUNITIES

We intend to continue to selectively explore opportunities to pursue investments, commercial alliances, partnerships, joint ventures, acquisitions, dispositions and other strategic initiatives and transactions, domestically and internationally, that we believe may allow us to increase our existing market share, increase our satellite capacity, expand into new markets and new customers, broaden our portfolio of services, products and intellectual property, make our business more valuable, align us for future growth and expansion, maximize the return on our investments and strengthen our business and relationships with our customers. We may allocate or dispose of significant resources for long-term value that may not have a short or medium-term or any positive impact on our revenue, results of operations, or cash flow.

OUR SATELLITE FLEET
 
Our operating satellite fleet as of December 31, 2019 consists of both owned and leased satellites as follows:
Satellite
 
Segment
 
Launch Date
 
Nominal Degree Orbital Location (Longitude)
 
Depreciable Life (In Years)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Owned:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
SPACEWAY 3 (1)
 
Hughes
 
August 2007
 
95 W
 
10
EchoStar XVII
 
Hughes
 
July 2012
 
107 W
 
15
EchoStar XIX
 
Hughes
 
December 2016
 
97.1 W
 
15
Al Yah 3 (2)
 
Hughes
 
January 2018
 
20 W
 
7
EchoStar IX (3)
 
ESS
 
August 2003
 
121 W
 
12
EUTELSAT 10A (“W2A”) (4)
 
Corporate and Other
 
April 2009
 
10 E
 
-
EchoStar XXI
 
Corporate and Other
 
June 2017
 
10.25 E
 
15
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Finance leases:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Eutelsat 65 West A
 
Hughes
 
March 2016
 
65 W
 
15
Telesat T19V
 
Hughes
 
July 2018
 
63 W
 
15
EchoStar 105/SES-11
 
ESS
 
October 2017
 
105 W
 
15
(1)
Depreciable life represents the remaining useful life as of June 8, 2011, the date EchoStar completed its acquisition of Hughes Communications, Inc. (“Hughes Communication”) and its subsidiaries (the “Hughes Acquisition”).
(2) Upon consummation of our joint venture with Yahsat in Brazil in November 2019, we acquired the Brazilian Ka-band payload on this satellite. Depreciable life represents the remaining useful life of the payload as of November 2019.
(3)    We own the Ka-band and Ku-band payloads on this satellite.
(4)    We acquired the S-band payload on this satellite, which, prior to the acquisition in December 2013, experienced an anomaly at the time of the launch. As a result, the S-band payload is not fully operational.
 
Construction in progress as of December 31, 2019 included our EchoStar XXIV satellite, which has a planned 2021 launch, and our S-band nano-satellites, with expected launches in the first half of 2020.


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Satellite Anomalies and Impairments
 
Our satellites may experience anomalies from time to time, some of which may have a significant adverse effect on their remaining useful lives, the commercial operation of the satellites or our operating results or financial position. We are not aware of any anomalies with respect to our owned or leased satellites that have had any such significant adverse effect during the year ended December 31, 2019. There can be no assurance, however, that anomalies will not have any such adverse effects in the future. In addition, there can be no assurance that we can recover critical transmission capacity in the event one or more of our satellites were to fail.

We generally do not carry in-orbit insurance on our satellites because we have assessed that the cost of insurance is not economical relative to the risk of failures. Therefore, we generally bear the risk of any in-orbit failures. Pursuant to the terms of the agreements governing certain portions of our indebtedness and our joint venture agreements with Yahsat, we are required, subject to certain limitations on coverage, to maintain only for the SPACEWAY 3 satellite, the EchoStar XVII satellite and the Al Yah 3 Brazilian payload, insurance or other contractual arrangements during the commercial in-orbit service of such satellite. We were previously required to maintain similar insurance or other contractual arrangements for the EchoStar XVI satellite, which we transferred to DISH Network pursuant to the BSS Transaction. Our other satellites and payloads, either in orbit or under construction, are not covered by launch or in-orbit insurance or other contractual arrangements. We will continue to assess circumstances going forward and make insurance-related decisions on a case-by-case basis.

We evaluate our satellites for impairment and test for recoverability whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that their carrying amount may not be recoverable. Certain of the anomalies previously disclosed may be considered to represent a significant adverse change in the physical condition of a particular satellite. However, based on the redundancy designed within each satellite, certain of these anomalies are not necessarily considered to be significant events that would require a test of recoverability.

GOVERNMENT REGULATIONS
 
We are subject to comprehensive regulation by the FCC for our domestic, as well as various international, satellite and telecommunications operations and equipment businesses.  We are also regulated by other U.S. federal agencies, state and local authorities, the International Telecommunication Union (“ITU”) and certain foreign governments, including those in the EU, Australia, India and North, South and Central American countries.  In addition, we are also subject to the export control laws and regulations and trade sanctions laws and regulations of the U.S. and other countries with respect to the export of telecommunications equipment and services.  Depending upon the circumstances, non-compliance with applicable legislation or regulations could result in suspension or revocation of our licenses or authorizations, the termination or loss of contracts or the imposition of contractual damages, civil fines or criminal penalties.
 
The following summary of regulations and legislation is not intended to describe all present and proposed government regulation and legislation affecting our business.  Government regulations that are currently the subject of judicial or administrative proceedings, draft legislation or administrative proposals could impact us and our industries to varying degrees.  The FCC and other regulators from time to time initiate proceedings that could adversely impact our satellite operations, including spectrum usage.  We cannot predict either the outcome of these proceedings or proposals or any potential impact they might have on the industry or on our operations.
 
FCC Regulations Applicable to Our Operations
 
FCC Jurisdiction over Satellite and Terrestrial Operations.  Non-governmental, including commercial entities, that use radio frequencies to provide communications services to, from or within the U.S. are subject to the jurisdiction of the FCC under the Communications Act of 1934, as amended (the “Communications Act”).  The Communications Act gives the FCC regulatory jurisdiction over many areas relating to communications operations, including:
 
the assignment of satellite radio frequencies and orbital locations to specific services and companies, the licensing of satellites and earth stations and the granting of related authorizations;
approval for the relocation of satellites to different orbital locations, the replacement of a satellite with another new or existing satellite and the authorization of specific earth stations to communicate with such newly relocated satellites;
ensuring compliance with the terms and conditions of assignments, licenses, authorizations and approvals;

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avoiding harmful interference with other radio frequency emitters; and
ensuring compliance with other applicable provisions of the Communications Act and FCC rules and regulations.

All satellite licenses issued by the FCC are subject to expiration unless extended by the FCC.  Our U.S. FSS licenses generally have 15 year terms.  We hold licenses and authorizations for satellite and earth stations as well as other services, including terrestrial wireless services.  To obtain and operate under such FCC licenses and authorizations, we must satisfy legal, technical qualification requirements and other conditions including, among other things, satisfaction of certain technical and ongoing due diligence obligations, implementation bonds, annual regulatory fees and various reporting requirements. Licenses must be obtained prior to launching or operating a satellite.

Telecommunications Regulation.  Many of the services we provide are also subject to FCC regulation as telecommunications services.  For certain services in the U.S., we are required to contribute fees, computed as a percentage of our revenue from telecommunications services to the Universal Service Fund (“USF”) to support mechanisms that subsidize the provision of services to low-income consumers, high-cost areas, schools, libraries and rural health care providers.  Current FCC rules permit us to pass this USF contribution through to our customers.  The FCC also requires broadband internet access and internet telephony service providers to comply with the requirements of the Federal Communications Assistance for Law Enforcement Act, which generally requires telecommunications carriers to ensure that law enforcement agencies are able to conduct lawfully-authorized surveillance of users of their services.  In addition, as a provider of interconnected voice over internet protocol services, we are required to abide by a number of rules related to telephony service, including rules dealing with the protection of customer information and the processing of emergency calls.
 
State and Local Regulation
 
We are also regulated by state and local authorities.  While the FCC has preempted many state and local regulations that would impair the installation and use of very-small-aperture terminals and other consumer satellite dishes, our businesses nonetheless are subject to state and local regulation, including, among others, obtaining regulatory authorizations and zoning regulations that affect the ability to install these consumer satellite earth station antennas.
 
International Regulation
 
Foreign Administrations’ Jurisdiction Over Satellite and Terrestrial Operations.  Some of our satellites and earth stations are licensed in foreign jurisdictions.  We also have terrestrial authorizations in foreign jurisdictions.  In order to provide service to a foreign location from our satellites, we are required to obtain approvals from the FCC and foreign administrative agencies.  The laws and regulations addressing access to satellite and terrestrial systems vary from country to country.  In most countries, a license is required to provide our services and to operate satellite earth stations.  Such licenses may impose certain conditions, including implementation and operation of the satellite system in a manner consistent with certain milestones (such as for contracting, satellite design, construction, launch and implementation of service), that the satellite or its launch be procured through a national entity, that the satellite control center be located in national territory, that a license be obtained prior to launching or operating the satellite, or that a license be obtained before interconnecting with the local switched telephone network and we may be subject to penalties or fines for failing to meet such conditions.  Additionally, some countries may have restrictions on the services we provide and how we provide them and/or may limit the rates that can be charged for the services we provide or impose other service terms or restrictions. Furthermore, foreign countries in which we currently, or may in the future, operate may not authorize us access to all of the spectrum that we need to provide service in a particular country.
 
The ITU Frequency and Orbital Location Registration.  The orbital location and frequencies for our satellites are subject to the frequency registration and coordination process of the ITU.  The ITU Radio Regulations define the international rules, regulations and rights for a satellite and associated earth stations to use specific radio frequencies at a specific orbital location.  These rules, which include deadlines for the bringing of satellite networks into use, differ depending on the type of service to be provided and the frequencies to be used by the satellite.  On our behalf, various countries have made and may in the future make, additional filings for the frequency assignments at particular orbital locations that are used or to be used by our current satellite networks and potential future satellite networks we may build or acquire.  In the event the international coordination process that is triggered by ITU filings under applicable rules is not successfully completed, or that the requests for modification of the broadcast satellite services plan regarding the allocation of orbital locations and frequencies are not granted by the ITU, we will have to operate the applicable satellite(s) on a non-interference basis, which could have an adverse impact on our business operations.  If we cannot

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do so, we may have to cease operating such satellite(s) at the affected orbital locations.  We cannot be sure of the successful outcome of these ITU coordination processes.  We make commercially reasonable efforts to cooperate with the filing nation in the preparation of ITU filings, coordination of our operations in accordance with the relevant ITU Radio Regulations and responses to relevant ITU inquiries.

Registration in the United Nations (“UN”) Registry of Space Objects.  The U.S. and other jurisdictions in which we license satellites are generally parties to the UN Convention on the Registration of Objects Launched into Outer Space, which requires a satellite’s launching state to register the satellite as a space object.  The act of registration carries liability for the registering country in the event that the satellite causes third party damage.  Administrations may place certain requirements on satellite licensees in order to procure the necessary launch or operational authorizations that accompany registration of the satellite.  In some jurisdictions, these authorizations are separate and distinct, with unique requirements, from the authorization to use a set of frequencies to provide satellite services.
 
Telecommunications Regulation.  Many of the services we provide are also subject to the regulation of other countries as telecommunications services.  For certain services, we may be required to contribute fees to a universal service or other fund to support mechanisms that subsidize the provision of services to designated groups.  Many countries also impose requirements on telecommunications carriers to ensure that law enforcement agencies are able to conduct lawfully-authorized surveillance of users of their services.  In addition, we are subject to a number of other rules, including rules related to telephony service such as the protection of customer information and processing of emergency calls.
 
Export Control Regulation
 
In the operation of our business, we must comply with all applicable export control and trade sanctions laws and regulations of the U.S. and other countries.  Applicable U.S. laws and regulations include the Arms Export Control Act, the International Traffic in Arms Regulations (“ITAR”), the Export Administration Regulations (“EAR”) and the trade sanctions laws and regulations administered by the U.S. Department of the Treasury’s Office of Foreign Assets Control (“OFAC”).
 
The export of certain hardware, technical data, and services relating to satellites and the supply of certain ground control equipment, technical data and services to non-U.S. persons or to destinations outside the U.S. is regulated by the U.S. Department of Commerce’s Bureau of Industry and Security (“BIS”) under the EAR.  In addition, BIS regulates our export of satellite communications network equipment to non-U.S. persons or to destinations outside of the U.S.  The export of other items is regulated by the U.S. Department of State’s Directorate of Defense Trade Controls (“DDTC”) under the ITAR and are subject to strict export control and prior approval requirements.  In addition, we cannot provide certain equipment or services to certain countries subject to U.S. trade sanctions unless we first obtain the necessary authorizations from OFAC.  We are also subject to the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and similar anti-bribery laws in other jurisdictions that generally prohibit companies and their intermediaries from making improper payments or giving or promising to give anything of value to foreign government officials and other individuals for the purpose of obtaining or retaining business or gaining a competitive advantage.
 
Environmental Regulation
 
We are subject to the requirements of federal, state, local and foreign environmental and occupational safety and health laws and regulations.  These include laws regulating air emissions, waste-water discharge and waste management, most significantly the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (“EPCRA”).  Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, our Hughes segment is considered a small quantity generator.
 
As required by the EPCRA, we file annual reports with regulatory agencies covering four areas: Emergency Planning, Emergency Release, Hazardous Chemical Storage and Toxic Chemical Release Inventory.  We maintain small quantities of hazardous materials on our premises and, therefore, have relatively modest reporting requirements under the EPCRA.  We are also subject to the requirements of other environmental and occupational safety and health laws and regulations.  Additionally, we review the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act Title III regulatory requirements and annually report quantities of onsite material storage using Tier II, state DEQ (Department of Environmental Quality) reporting systems.
 
Our environmental compliance costs, capital and other expenditures to date have not been material, and we do not expect them to be material in 2020.  However, environmental requirements are complex, change frequently and have

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become more stringent over time.  Accordingly, we cannot provide assurance that these requirements will not change or become more stringent in the future in a manner that could have a material adverse effect on our business and/or environmental compliance costs, capital or other expenditures.

PATENTS AND TRADEMARKS
 
We currently rely on a combination of patent, trade secret, copyright and trademark law, together with licenses, non-disclosure and confidentiality agreements and technical measures, to establish and protect proprietary rights in our products.  We hold U.S. and foreign patents covering various aspects of our products and services.  The duration of each of our U.S. patents is generally 20 years from the earliest filing date to which the patent has priority.  We have granted licenses to use our trademarks and service-marks to affiliates and resellers worldwide, and we typically retain the right to monitor the use of those marks and impose significant restrictions on their use in efforts to ensure a consistent brand identity.  We protect our proprietary rights in our software through software licenses that, among other things, require that the software source code be maintained as confidential information and that prohibit any reverse-engineering of that code.
 
We believe that our patents are important to our business.  We also believe that, in some areas, the improvement of existing products and the development of new products, as well as reliance upon trade secrets and unpatented proprietary know-how, are important in establishing and maintaining a competitive advantage.  We believe, to a certain extent, that the value of our products and services are dependent upon our proprietary software, hardware and other technology remaining trade secrets and/or subject to copyright protection.  Generally, we enter into non-disclosure and invention assignment agreements with our employees, subcontractors and certain customers and other business partners.  Please see Item 3. Legal Proceedings of this Form 10-K for more information.

RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT AND ENGINEERING
 
We have a skilled and multi-disciplined engineering organization that develops our products and services.  Our in-house technological capability includes a wide range of skills required to develop systems, hardware, software and firmware used in our products and services. 
 
With respect to hardware development, we have skill sets that include complex digital designs, radio frequency and intermediate frequency analog designs, advanced application-specific integrated circuit designs and sophisticated consumer and system level packaging designs.  We also have extensive experience in developing products for high-volume, low-cost manufacturing for the consumer industry, including dual mode satellite and wireless handsets.
 
As a complement to our hardware development, we have extensive experience in designing reliable, real time, embedded software systems as part of our communication systems and services offerings.  For example, our broadband product line for the enterprise market supports an extensive range of protocols for data communications.  Our engineers have also developed many large turnkey systems for our customers by designing the overall solution, implementing the various subsystems, deploying the entire network and user terminals, integrating and verifying the operational system and ultimately training the customers’ technicians and operators.
 
Costs incurred in research and development activities are generally expensed as incurred. A significant portion of our research and development costs are incurred in connection with the specific requirements of a customer’s order. In such instances, the amounts for these customer funded development efforts are included in Cost of sales - equipment in the Consolidated Statements of Operations in our Accompanying Consolidated Financial Statements.

GEOGRAPHIC AREA DATA AND TRANSACTIONS WITH MAJOR CUSTOMERS
 
For principal geographic area data and transactions with major customers for 2019, 2018 and 2017, see Note 21 in our Accompanying Consolidated Financial Statements.  See Item 1A. Risk Factors for information regarding risks related to our foreign operations.

EMPLOYEES
 
As of December 31, 2019, we had approximately 2,300 employees and generally consider relations with them to be good. Other than approximately 200 of our employees located in Italy and Brazil, none are represented by a union.


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WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION
 
We are subject to the informational requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and accordingly file an annual report on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, proxy statements and other information with the SEC.  Our public filings are maintained on the SEC’s internet site at http://www.sec.gov, which contains reports, proxy and information statements and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC.

WEBSITE ACCESS
 
Our Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K and amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, may also be accessed free of charge through our website at http://www.echostar.com as soon as reasonably practicable after we have electronically filed such material with, or furnished it to, the SEC.
 
We have adopted a written code of ethics that applies to all of our directors, officers and employees, including our principal executive officer, principal financial officer, principal accounting officer and controller, in accordance with the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 and the rules of the SEC promulgated thereunder.  Our code of ethics is available on our corporate website at http://www.echostar.com.  In the event that we make changes in, or provide waivers of, the provisions of this code of ethics that the SEC requires us to disclose, we intend to disclose these events on our website.


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INFORMATION ABOUT OUR EXECUTIVE OFFICERS

Furnished in accordance with Item 401(b) of Regulation S-K, pursuant to General Instruction G(3) of Form 10-K.

The following table and information below sets forth the name, age and position with EchoStar of each of our executive officers, the period during which each executive officer has served as such and each executive officer’s business experience during at least the past five years:
Name
 
Age
 
Position
 
 
 
 
 
Charles W. Ergen
 
66
 
Chairman
Michael T. Dugan
 
71
 
Chief Executive Officer, President and Director
David J. Rayner
 
62
 
Executive Vice President, Chief Financial Officer, Chief Operating Officer and Treasurer
Anders N. Johnson
 
62
 
Chief Strategy Officer and President, EchoStar Satellite Services L.L.C.
Pradman P. Kaul
 
73
 
President, Hughes Communications and Director
Dean A. Manson
 
53
 
Executive Vice President, General Counsel and Secretary
 
Charles W. Ergen.  Mr. Ergen has served as our executive Chairman since November 2009 and Chairman of the Board of Directors since our formation in 2007.  Mr. Ergen served as our Chief Executive Officer from our formation in 2007 until November 2009.  Mr. Ergen serves as executive Chairman and has been Chairman of the Board of Directors of DISH since its formation and, during the past five years, has held executive officer and director positions with DISH Network, most recently serving as the Chief Executive Officer of DISH from March 2015 to December 2017. 
 
Michael T. Dugan.  Mr. Dugan has served as our Chief Executive Officer and President since November 2009.  Mr. Dugan has also served as a member of our Board of Directors since our formation in 2007.  Mr. Dugan served as a senior advisor to EchoStar from January 1, 2008 until November 2009.  From May 2004 to December 2007, he was a director of DISH and, from 1990 to 2006, he served in several executive roles at DISH Network, including as President, Chief Operating Officer, Chief Technical Officer and senior advisor. 
 
David J. Rayner.  Mr. Rayner has served as our Executive Vice President, Chief Financial Officer and Treasurer since December 2012 and as our Chief Operating Officer since September 2016. From November 2011 to November 2012, Mr. Rayner served as Chief Financial Officer of Tendril Networks, Inc., a Boulder, Colorado software company.  Mr. Rayner served as our Chief Financial Officer from June 2010 to November 2011 and served as our Chief Administrative Officer from January 2008 to June 2010.  Prior to that, Mr. Rayner served as Executive Vice President of Installation and Service Networks of DISH and previously as Chief Financial Officer of DISH .  Before joining DISH in December 2004, Mr. Rayner served as Senior Vice President and Chief Financial Officer of Time Warner Telecom in Denver, beginning in June 1998.

Anders N. Johnson.  Mr. Johnson has served as President of EchoStar Satellite Services L.L.C. since June 2011 and as our Chief Strategy Officer since September 2016. Before joining EchoStar, Mr. Johnson was most recently at SES World Skies where he served as Senior Vice President of Strategic Satellite Development.  Mr. Johnson joined SES GLOBAL after the combination of GE Americom and SES GLOBAL in 2001.  Prior to SES GLOBAL, Mr. Johnson worked at GE Capital beginning in 1985 in a variety of executive level roles in Satellite Services, Aviation Services and Transportation & Industrial Financing.
 
Pradman P. Kaul.  Mr. Kaul has served as President of Hughes Communications since its formation in February 2006 and as President of Hughes Network Systems, LLC, a wholly owned subsidiary of Hughes Communications (and together with Hughes Communications, “Hughes”) since 2000.  Mr. Kaul has also served as a member of our Board of Directors since August 2011 as well as a member of the board of directors of Hughes Communications from February 2006 until June 2011.  Previously, Mr. Kaul served as the Chief Operating Officer, Executive Vice President and Director of Engineering of Hughes Network Systems, LLC.

Dean A. Manson.  Mr. Manson has served as our Executive Vice President, General Counsel and Secretary since November 2011 and is responsible for all our legal and government affairs. Mr. Manson joined our subsidiary Hughes

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Network Systems, LLC in 2000 from the law firm of Milbank, Tweed, Hadley & McCloy LLP, where he focused on international project finance and corporate transactions and was appointed General Counsel in 2004.
 
There are no arrangements or understandings between any executive officer and any other person pursuant to which any executive officer was selected as such.  Pursuant to the Bylaws of EchoStar, executive officers serve at the discretion of the Board of Directors.


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ITEM 1A.      RISK FACTORS
 
The risks and uncertainties described below are not the only ones facing us.  If any of the following events occur, our business, financial condition, results of operation, prospects or ability to fund a share or debt repurchase program, invest capital in or otherwise run our business, execute on our strategic plans or return capital to our shareholders could be materially and adversely affected.

GENERAL RISKS AFFECTING OUR BUSINESS
 
We may pursue acquisitions, dispositions, capital expenditures, the development, acquisition and launch of new satellites and other strategic transactions to complement or expand our business, which may not be successful and we may lose a portion or all of our investment in these acquisitions and transactions.
 
Our future success may depend on the existence of, and our ability to capitalize on, opportunities to acquire or develop other businesses or technologies or partner with other companies that could complement, enhance or expand our current business, services or products or that may otherwise offer us growth opportunities.  We may pursue investments, commercial alliances, partnerships, joint ventures, acquisitions, dispositions or other strategic initiatives and transactions or development activities, including, without limitation, the design, development, construction, acquisition and launch of new satellites, to complement or expand our business and satellite fleet.  Any such acquisitions, dispositions, activities, transactions or investments that we are able to identify and complete which may become substantial over time, involve a high degree of risk, including, but not limited to, the following:
 
the risks associated with developing and constructing new satellites;
the diversion of our management’s attention from our existing business to integrate or divide the operations and personnel of the acquired, disposed or combined business, technology or joint venture and/or to engage in such investments, dispositions and/or other activities;
the ability and capacity of our management team to carry out all of our business plans, including with respect to our existing businesses and any businesses we acquire or embark on in the future;
possible adverse effects on our and our targets’ and partners’ business, financial condition or operating results during the integration process;
exposure to significant financial losses if the transactions, activities, investments, dispositions and/or the underlying ventures are not successful and/or we are unable to achieve the intended objectives of the transaction, disposition or investment;
the inability to obtain in the anticipated time frame, or at all, any regulatory approvals required to complete proposed acquisitions, dispositions, activities, transactions or investments;
the risks associated with complying with regulations applicable to the acquired or developed business or technologies which may cause us to incur substantial expenses;
the inability to realize anticipated benefits or synergies from acquisitions, dispositions, investments, alliances and/or the development and launch of new satellites;
the disruption of relationships with employees, vendors or customers; and
the risks associated with foreign and international operations and/or investments or dispositions.

New investments, commercial alliances, partnerships, joint ventures, acquisitions, dispositions, development activities, including, without limitation, the design, development, construction and launch of new satellites and other strategic initiatives may require the commitment of significant capital that may otherwise be directed to investments in our existing businesses or be distributed to shareholders.

Our strategic initiatives may not be successfully implemented, may not elicit the expected customer response in the market and may result in competitive reactions.
 
We intend to continue to selectively explore opportunities to pursue investments, commercial alliances, partnerships, joint ventures, acquisitions, dispositions and other strategic initiatives and transactions, domestically and internationally, that we believe may allow us to increase our existing market share, increase our satellite capacity, expand into new markets, obtain new customers, broaden our portfolio of services, products and intellectual property, make our business more valuable, align us for future growth and expansion, maximize the return on our investments and strengthen our

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business and relationships with our customers. We may allocate significant resources for long-term initiatives that may not have a short or medium-term or any positive impact on our revenue, results of operations, or cash flow. The successful implementation of our strategic initiatives requires an investment of time, talent and money and is dependent upon a number of factors some of which are not within our control.  Those factors include the ability to execute such initiatives in new and existing markets, the response of existing and potential new customers and the actions or reactions of competitors.  If we fail to properly execute or deliver products or services that address customers’ expectations, it may have an adverse effect on our ability to retain and attract customers and may increase our costs and reduce our revenue.  Similarly, competitive actions or reactions to our initiatives or advancements in technology or competitive products or services could impair our ability to execute those strategic initiatives or advancements.  In addition, new strategic initiatives may face barriers to entering new or existing markets with established or new competitors.  There can be no assurance that we will successfully implement these strategic initiatives or that, if successfully pursued, they will have the desired effect on our business or results of operations.
 
The failure to adequately anticipate the need for satellite capacity or the inability to obtain satellite capacity for our Hughes segment could harm our results of operations.
 
Our Hughes segment has made substantial contractual commitments for satellite capacity based on our existing customer contracts and backlog.  If our existing customer contracts were to be terminated prior to their respective expiration dates, we may be committed to maintaining excess satellite capacity for which we will have insufficient revenue to cover our costs, which would have a negative impact on our margins and results of operations.  Alternatively, we may not have sufficient satellite capacity available from our satellites or purchased from third parties to meet demand and we may not be able to quickly or easily adjust our capacity to changes in demand.  At present, until the launch and operation of additional satellites, there is limited availability of capacity on the frequencies we use in North America, including within our own fleet of satellites, which could materially and adversely affect our ability to provide services to customers and grow our revenue and business.  In addition, following the consolidation of the FSS industry, the main FSS providers in North America and a number of smaller regional providers own and operate the current satellites that are available for our capacity needs.  The failure of any of these FSS providers to replace existing satellite assets at the end of their useful lives or a downturn in their industry as a whole could reduce the satellite capacity available to us.  Our business and results of operations could be adversely affected if we are not able to renew our capacity leases at economically viable rates, or if capacity is not available due to problems experienced by these FSS providers. Our ability to provide additional capacity for subscriber growth in our North American consumer market could also be adversely affected by regulations and/or legislation in the U.S. that enable or propose to enable the use of a portion of the frequency bands, we currently use or in the future intend to use for satellite services, 5G mobile terrestrial services or other uses. These bands include the Ka-band, where we operate our broadband gateway earth stations and other bands in which we may operate in the future. Such regulation or legislation could limit our ability to use the Ka-band and/or other bands, limit our flexibility to change the way in which we use the Ka-band and/or adversely impact our ability to use additional bands in the future. Other countries in which we currently, or may in the future, operate are also considering regulations that could similarly limit access to the Ka-band or other frequency bands.

We could face decreased demand and increased pricing pressure to our products and services due to competition.
 
Our business operates in an intensely competitive, consumer- and enterprise-driven and rapidly changing environment and competes with a growing number of companies that provide products and services to consumer and enterprise customers.  There can be no assurance that we will be able to effectively compete against our competitors due to their significant resources and operating history. Risks to our business from competition include, but are not limited to, the following:
 
In our consumer market, our Hughes segment faces competition primarily from DSL, fiber, fixed wireless and cable internet service providers.  Also, other telecommunications, satellite and wireless broadband companies have launched or are planning the launch of consumer internet access services in competition with our service offerings in North, Central and South America.  Some of these competitors offer consumer services and hardware at lower prices, higher speeds and/or higher capacity than ours.  In addition, terrestrial alternatives do not require our external dish, which may limit customer acceptance of our products.  Further, government funding for competing products and services may reduce the demand for our products and services. We may be unsuccessful in competing effectively against DSL, fiber, fixed wireless and cable internet service providers and other satellite broadband providers, which could harm our business, operating results and financial condition.

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In our enterprise network communications market, our Hughes segment faces competition from providers of terrestrial-based networks, such as fiber, DSL, cable modem service, multiprotocol label switching and internet protocol-based virtual private networks, which may have advantages over satellite networks for certain customer applications.  Although we also sell terrestrial services to this market, we may not be as cost competitive as other providers and it may become more difficult for us to compete.  The network communications industry is characterized by competitive pressures to provide enhanced functionality for the same or lower price with each new generation of technology.  Terrestrial-based networks are offered by telecommunications carriers and other large companies, many of which have substantially greater financial resources and greater name recognition than ours.  As the prices of our products decrease, we will need to sell more products and/or reduce the per-unit costs to improve or maintain our results of operations.  The costs of a satellite network may exceed those of a terrestrial-based network or other networks, especially in areas that have experienced significant DSL and cable internet build-out.  It may become more difficult for us to compete with terrestrial and other providers as the number of these areas continues to increase and the cost of their network and hardware services continues to decline.  Terrestrial networks also have a competitive edge over satellite networks because of lower latency for data transmission.
Our ESS segment competes against larger, well-established satellite service companies.  Because the satellite services industry is relatively mature, our strategy depends largely on our ability to displace current incumbent providers, which often have the benefit of long-term contracts with customers.  These long-term contracts and other factors result in relatively high costs for customers to change service providers, making it more difficult for us to displace customers from their current relationships with our competitors.  In addition, the supply of satellite capacity available in the market has increased in recent years, which makes it more difficult for us to sell our services in certain markets and to price our capacity at acceptable levels.  Competition may continue to cause downward pressure on prices and further reduce the utilization of our capacity, both of which could have an adverse effect on our financial performance.  Our ESS segment also competes with both fiber optic cable and terrestrial delivery systems, which may have a cost advantage, particularly in point-to-point applications where such delivery systems have been installed, and with new delivery systems being developed, which may have lower latency and other advantages.

We are dependent upon third-party providers for components, manufacturing, installation services and customer support services, and our results of operations may be materially adversely affected if any of these third-party providers fail to appropriately deliver the contracted goods or services.
 
We are dependent upon third-party services and products provided to us, including the following:
 
Components.  A limited number of suppliers manufacture, and in some cases a single supplier manufactures, some of the key components required to build our products. These key components may not be continually available and we may not be able to forecast our component requirements sufficiently in advance, which may have a detrimental effect on supply.  If we are required to change suppliers for any reason, we would experience a delay in manufacturing our products if another supplier is not able to meet our requirements on a timely basis.  In addition, if we are unable to obtain the necessary volumes of components on favorable terms or prices on a timely basis, we may be unable to produce our products at competitive prices and we may be unable to satisfy demand from our customers.  Our reliance on a single or limited group of suppliers, particularly foreign suppliers, and our reliance on subcontractors, involves several risks.  These risks include a potential inability to obtain an adequate supply of required components, reduced control over pricing, quality and timely delivery of these components, and the potential bankruptcy, lack of liquidity or operational failure of our suppliers.  We do not generally maintain long-term agreements with any of our suppliers or subcontractors for our products.  An inability to obtain adequate deliveries or any other circumstances requiring us to seek alternative sources of supply could affect our ability to ship our products on a timely basis, which could damage our relationships with current and prospective customers and harm our business, resulting in a loss of market share and reduced revenue and income.
Commodity Price Risk.  Fluctuations in pricing of raw materials can affect our product costs.  To the extent that component pricing does not decline or increases, whether due to inflation, increased demand, decreased supply, trade policies, tariffs or other factors, we may not be able to pass on the impact of increasing raw materials prices, component prices or labor and other costs, to our customers, and we may not be able to operate profitably.  Such changes could have an adverse impact on our product costs.
Manufacturing.  While we develop and manufacture prototypes for certain of our products, we use contract manufacturers to produce a significant portion of our hardware.  If these contract manufacturers fail to provide

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products that meet our specifications in a timely manner, then our customer relationships and revenue may be harmed.
Installation and customer support services.  Some of our products and services, such as our North American and international operations, utilize a network of third-party installers to deploy our hardware.  In addition, a portion of our customer support and management is provided by third-party call centers.  A decline in levels of service or attention to the needs of our customers could adversely affect our reputation, renewal rates and ability to win new business.
Other services.  Some of our products rely on third parties to provide services necessary for the operation of functionalities of the products, such as third-party cloud computing services and satellite uplink hosting services.  The failure of these services could disrupt the operation of certain functionalities of our products, which could harm our customer relationship and result in a loss of sales.  In addition, if the agreements for the provision of these services are terminated or not renewed, we could face difficulties replacing these service providers, which would adversely affect our ability to obtain and retain customers and result in reduced revenue and income.
 
Our foreign operations and investments expose us to risks and restrictions not present in our domestic operations.

Our sales outside the U.S. accounted for 20.4%, 19.2% and 22.2% of our revenue for the years ended December 31, 2019, 2018 and 2017, respectively.  We expect our foreign operations to represent a significant and growing portion of our business.  Over the last 10 years, we sold products in over 100 countries and began offering broadband internet services to consumers in several Central and South American countries.  Our foreign operations involve varying degrees of risk and uncertainties inherent in doing business abroad.  Such risks include:
 
Complications in complying with restrictions on foreign ownership and investment and limitations on repatriation.  We may not be permitted to own our operations in some countries and may have to enter into partnership or joint venture relationships.  Many foreign legal regimes and/or our contractual arrangements restrict our repatriation of earnings to the U.S. from our subsidiaries and joint venture entities.  Applicable law in such foreign countries may also limit our ability to distribute or access our assets or offer our products and services in certain circumstances.  In such event, we will not have access to the cash flow and assets of our subsidiaries and joint ventures.
Difficulties in following a variety of laws and regulations related to foreign operations.  Our international operations are subject to the laws and regulations of many different jurisdictions that may differ significantly from U.S. laws and regulations.  For example, local privacy or intellectual property laws may hold us responsible for the data that is transmitted over our network by our customers.  In addition, we are subject to the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and similar anti-bribery laws in other jurisdictions that generally prohibit companies and their intermediaries from making improper payments or giving or promising to give anything of value to foreign officials and other individuals for the purpose of obtaining or retaining business or gaining a competitive advantage.  Our policies mandate compliance with these laws.  However, we operate in many parts of the world that have experienced corruption to some degree.  Compliance with these laws may lead to increased operations costs or loss of business opportunities.  Violations of these laws could result in fines or other penalties or sanctions, which could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition, results of operations or cash flow.
Restrictions on space station landing/terrestrial rights.  Satellite market access and landing rights and terrestrial wireless rights are dependent on the national regulations established by foreign governments, including, but not limited to obtaining national authorizations or approvals and meeting other regulatory, coordination and registration requirements for satellites.  Because regulatory schemes vary by country, we may be subject to laws or regulations in foreign countries of which we may not be aware.  Non-compliance with these requirements may result in the loss of the authorizations and licenses to conduct business in these countries, as well as fines or other financial and non-financial penalties for non-compliance with regulations.  If that were to be the case, we could be subject to sanctions, penalties and/or other actions by a foreign government that could materially and adversely affect our ability to operate in that country.  There is no assurance that any current regulatory approvals held by us are, or will remain, sufficient in the view of foreign regulatory authorities, or that any additional necessary approvals will be granted on a timely basis or at all, in all jurisdictions in which we wish to operate new satellites, or that applicable restrictions in those jurisdictions will not be unduly burdensome.  Violations of laws or regulations may result in various sanctions including fines, loss of authorizations and the denial of applications for new authorizations or for the renewal of existing

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authorizations, and the failure to obtain or comply with the authorizations and regulations governing our international operations could have a material adverse effect on our ability to generate revenue and our overall competitive position.
Financial and legal constraints and obligations.  Operating pursuant to foreign licenses subjects us to certain financial constraints and obligations, including, but not limited to: (a) tax liabilities that may or may not be dependent on revenue; (b) the regulatory requirements associated with maintaining such licenses, which may change over time, are subject to interpretation by foreign courts and regulatory bodies, and may result in additional costs to operate and/or fines, sanctions and penalties being imposed on us or our subsidiaries if found to be violating the terms of such licenses, any or all of which could be material; (c) the burden of creating and maintaining additional entities, branches, facilities and/or staffing in foreign jurisdictions; and (d) legal regulations requiring that we make certain satellite capacity available for “free,” which may impact our revenue.  In addition, if we need to pursue legal remedies against our customers or our business partners located outside of the U.S., it may be difficult for us to enforce our rights against them.
Compliance with applicable export control laws and regulations in the U.S. and other countries.  We must comply with all applicable export control and trade sanctions laws and regulations of the U.S. and other countries.  U.S. laws and regulations applicable to us include the Arms Export Control Act, ITAR, EAR and trade sanctions laws and regulations administered by OFAC.  The export of certain hardware, technical data and services relating to satellites is regulated by BIS under EAR.  Other items are controlled for export by the U.S. Department of State’s Directorate of Defense Trade Controls under ITAR.  We cannot provide equipment or services to certain countries subject to U.S. trade sanctions unless we first obtain the necessary authorizations from OFAC.  Violations of these laws or regulations could result in significant sanctions including fines, more onerous compliance requirements, debarments from export privileges, or loss of authorizations needed to conduct aspects of our international business.  A violation of ITAR or other export or trade-related regulations could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Changes in exchange rates between foreign currencies and the U.S. dollar.  We conduct our business and incur cost in the local currency of a number of the countries in which we operate.  Accordingly, our applicable results of operations are reported in the relevant local currency and then translated to U.S. dollars at the applicable currency exchange rate for inclusion in our financial statements.  In addition, we sell our products and services and acquire supplies and components from countries that historically have been, and may continue to be, susceptible to recessions, instability or currency devaluation.  These fluctuations in currency exchange rates, recessions and currency devaluations have affected, and may in the future affect, revenue, profits and cash earned on international sales.
Greater exposure to the possibility of economic instability, the disruption of operations from labor and political disturbances, expropriation or war.  As we conduct operations throughout the world, we could be subject to regional or national economic downturns or instability, acts of terrorism, labor or political disturbances or conflicts of various sizes, including wars.  Any of these disruptions could detrimentally affect our sales in the affected region or country or lead to damage to, or expropriation of, our property or danger to our personnel.
Competition with large or state-owned enterprises and/or regulations that effectively limit our operations and favor local competitors.  Many of the countries in which we conduct business have traditionally had state-owned or state-granted monopolies on telecommunications services that favor an incumbent service provider.  We face competition from these favored and entrenched companies in countries that have not deregulated.  The slower pace of deregulation in these countries, including in Asia, Latin America, Middle East, India, Africa and Eastern Europe, has adversely affected, and is likely to continue to adversely affect, the development and growth of our business in these regions.
Customer credit risks.  Customer credit risks are exacerbated in foreign operations because there is often little information available about the credit histories of customers in certain of the foreign countries in which we operate.

We may experience loss from some of our customer contracts.
 
We provide access to our telecommunications networks to customers that use a variety of platforms such as satellite, wireless 4G, 5G, cable, fiber optic and DSL.  These customer contracts may require us to provide services at a fixed price for the term of the contract.  To facilitate the provision of this access, we may enter into contracts with terrestrial platform providers.  Our agreements with these subcontractors may allow for prices to be changed during the term of the contracts.  We assume greater financial risk on these customer contracts than on other types of contracts because

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if we do not estimate costs accurately and there is an increase in our subcontractors’ prices, our net profit may be significantly reduced or there may be a loss on the contracts.
 
We may experience significant financial losses on our existing investments.
 
We have entered into certain strategic transactions and investments.  These investments involve a high degree of risk and could diminish our financial condition or our ability to fund a share or debt repurchase program, invest capital in our business or return capital to our shareholders. The overall sustained economic uncertainty, as well as financial, operational and other difficulties encountered by certain companies in which we have invested increases the risk that the actual amounts realized in the future on our debt and equity investments will differ significantly from the fair values currently assigned to them.  In addition, the companies in which we invest or with whom we partner may not be able to compete or operate effectively or may experience bankruptcy or other liquidity or other financial stress or there may be insufficient demand for the services and products offered by these companies.  These investments could also expose us to significant financial losses and may restrict our ability to make other investments or limit alternative uses of our capital resources.  If our investments suffer losses, our financial condition could be materially adversely affected.
 
We may not be able to generate cash to meet our debt service needs or fund our operations.

As of December 31, 2019, our total indebtedness was $2.4 billion.  Our ability to make payments on or to refinance our indebtedness and to fund our operations will depend on our ability to generate cash in the future, which is subject in part to general economic, financial, competitive, legislative, regulatory and other factors that are beyond our control.  We may need to raise additional capital in order to fund ongoing operations or to capitalize on business opportunities.  We may not be able to generate sufficient cash flow from operations and future borrowings or equity may not be available in amounts sufficient to enable us to service or repay our indebtedness or to fund our operations or other liquidity needs.  If we are unable to generate sufficient cash, we may be forced to take actions such as revising or delaying our strategic plans, reducing or delaying capital expenditures and/or the development, design, acquisition and construction of new satellites, selling assets, restructuring or refinancing our debt or seeking additional equity capital.  We may not be able to implement any of these actions on satisfactory terms, or at all.  The indentures governing our indebtedness limit our ability to dispose of assets and use the proceeds from such dispositions.  Therefore, we may not be able to consummate those dispositions on satisfactory terms, or at all, or to use those proceeds in a manner we may otherwise prefer. The Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 enacted in December 2017 (the “2017 Tax Act”) limits the deductibility of interest expense for U.S. federal income tax purposes.  While the 2017 Tax Act has reduced our federal income tax obligations, if these limitations or other newly enacted provisions become applicable to us, they could minimize such reductions or otherwise require us to pay additional federal income taxes, which in turn could result in additional liquidity needs.
 
In addition, conditions in the financial markets could make it difficult for us to access equity or debt markets at acceptable terms or at all.  Instability or other conditions in the equity markets could make it difficult for us to raise equity financing without incurring substantial dilution to our existing shareholders.  In addition, sustained or increased economic weaknesses or pressures or new economic conditions may limit our ability to generate sufficient internal cash to fund investments, capital expenditures, acquisitions and other strategic transactions and/or the development, design, acquisition and construction of new satellites.  We cannot predict with any certainty whether or not we will be impacted by economic conditions.  As a result, these conditions make it difficult for us to accurately forecast and plan future business activities because we may not have access to funding sources necessary for us to pursue organic and strategic business development opportunities.
 
Covenants in our indentures restrict our business in many ways.
 
The indentures governing the Hughes Satellite Systems Corporation (“HSS”) 7 5/8% Senior Notes due 2021, 5.250% Senior Secured Notes due August 1, 2026 and 6.625% Senior Unsecured Notes due August 1, 2026 contain various covenants, subject to certain exceptions, that limit HSS’ ability and/or certain of its subsidiaries’ ability to, among other things:
 
incur additional debt;
pay dividends or make distributions on HSS’ capital stock or repurchase HSS’ capital stock;
make certain investments;
create liens or enter into sale and leaseback transactions;

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enter into transactions with affiliates;
merge or consolidate with another company;
transfer and sell assets; and
allow to exist certain restrictions on its or their ability to pay dividends, make distributions, make other payments, or transfer assets.
 
Failure to comply with these and certain other financial covenants, if not cured or waived, may result in an event of default under the indentures, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations or prospects.  If certain events of default occur and are continuing under the respective indenture, the trustee under that indenture or the requisite holders of the notes under that indenture may declare all such notes to be immediately due and payable and, in the case of the indenture governing our secured notes, could proceed against the collateral that secures the secured notes. If certain other events of default occur, the indentures will become immediately due and payable. Certain of our subsidiaries have pledged a significant portion of our assets as collateral to secure the 5.250% Senior Secured Notes due August 1, 2026.  If we do not have enough cash to service our debt or fund other liquidity needs, we may be required to take actions such as requesting a waiver from the holders of the notes, reducing or delaying capital expenditures, selling assets, restructuring or refinancing all or part of the existing debt, or seeking additional equity capital.  We cannot assure you that any of these remedies can be implemented on commercially reasonable terms or at all, which could result in the trustee declaring the notes to be immediately due and payable and/or foreclosing on the collateral.
 
To the extent we have available satellite capacity in our ESS segment, our results of operations may be materially adversely affected if we are not able to provide satellite services on this capacity to third parties.
 
While we are currently evaluating various opportunities to make profitable use of our available satellite capacity (including, but not limited to, supplying satellite capacity for new domestic and international ventures), there can be no assurance that we can successfully develop these business opportunities.  If we are unable to utilize our available satellite capacity for providing satellite services to third parties our margins could be negatively impacted, and we may be required to record impairments related to our satellites.

We rely on key personnel and the loss of their services may negatively affect our businesses.
 
We believe that our future success depends to a significant extent upon the performance of Mr. Charles W. Ergen, our Chairman, and certain other key executives.  The loss of Mr. Ergen or of certain other key executives, the ability to effectively provide for the succession of our senior management, or the ability of Mr. Ergen or such other key executives to devote sufficient time and effort to our business could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.  Although some of our key executives may have agreements relating to their equity compensation that limit their ability to work for or consult with competitors, under certain circumstances, we generally do not have employment agreements with them.  To the extent Mr. Ergen is performing services for both DISH Network and us, his attention may be diverted away from our business and therefore adversely affect our business.
 
A natural disaster could diminish our ability to provide service to our customers.

Natural disasters could damage or destroy our ground stations and/or our other or our vendors’ infrastructure, equipment and facilities, resulting in a disruption of service to our customers.  We currently have backup systems and technology in place to safeguard our antennas and protect our ground stations during natural disasters such as tornadoes, but the possibility still exists that our ground facilities and/or our other and our vendors’ infrastructure, equipment and facilities could be impacted during a major natural disaster.  If a future natural disaster impairs or destroys any of our ground facilities and/or our other and our vendors’ infrastructure, equipment and facilities, we may be unable to provide service to our customers in the affected area for a period of time which may adversely affect our business and results of operations.


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We may have additional tax liabilities and changes in tax laws or regulations may have a material adverse effect on our business, cash flow, financial condition or results of operations.

We are subject to income taxes in the U.S. and foreign jurisdictions.  Significant judgments are required in determining our provisions for income taxes.  In the course of preparing our tax provisions and returns, we must make calculations where the ultimate tax determination may be uncertain.  Our tax returns are subject to examination by the Internal Revenue Service (“IRS”), state, and foreign tax authorities.  There can be no assurance as to the outcome of these examinations.  If the ultimate determination of taxes owed is for an amount in excess of amounts previously accrued, our operating results, cash flows, and financial condition could be adversely affected.

Additionally, new or modified income, sales, use or other tax laws, statutes, rules, regulations or ordinances could be enacted at any time, which could affect the tax treatment of our domestic and foreign earnings. Any new taxes could adversely affect our domestic and international business operations and our business and financial performance. Further, existing tax laws, statutes, rules, regulations or ordinances could be interpreted, changed, modified or applied adversely to us. Future tax legislation could have a material impact on the value of our deferred tax assets and could result in increases in our future U.S. tax expense. Furthermore, changes to the taxation of undistributed foreign earnings could change our future intentions regarding reinvestment of such earnings. The foregoing items could have a material adverse effect on our business, cash flow, financial condition or results of operations.

We earn a portion of our operating income from outside the U.S., and any repatriation of funds currently held in foreign jurisdictions may result in higher effective tax rates for us. In addition, changes to U.S. tax laws have significantly impacted how U.S. multinational corporations are taxed on foreign earnings. Numerous countries are evaluating their existing tax laws due in part, to recommendations made by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development’s Base Erosion and Profit Shifting project. Although we cannot predict whether or in what form any legislation based on such proposals may be adopted by the countries in which we do business, future tax reform based on such proposals or otherwise may increase the amount of taxes we pay and adversely affect our operating results and cash flows.

Developments with respect to trade policies, trade agreements, tariffs and related government regulations could continue to increase our costs and impact the supply of certain products we import, decrease demand for certain of our products and have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We source certain parts, components and items used in our products from manufacturers located outside of the U.S. and we sell certain of our products to customers located outside of the U.S.  Concerns have been raised about certain countries potentially engaging in unfair trade practices and, as a result, tariffs have been increased on certain goods imported into the U.S. from those countries, including China and other countries from which we import components or raw materials, and there is the possibility of additional tariff increases. The imposition of tariffs on imported products by the U.S. has triggered actions from certain foreign governments, specifically China, resulting in a “trade war”.  This trade war has materially increased the cost of certain products we import, impacted the supply of such products, and may require us to change our manufacturers. Although, the U.S. and China have agreed to a temporary trade deal, a potential long-term trade deal remains subject to ongoing trade talks while many of the tariffs remain in place. The outcome of the trade war, and any other governmental action related to tariffs, government regulations, or international trade agreements or policies could exacerbate adverse impacts incurred thus far and/or decrease demand for certain of our products, any or all of which could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
 
RISKS RELATED TO OUR SATELLITES
 
Our owned and leased satellites in orbit are subject to significant operational and environmental risks that could limit our ability to utilize these satellites.
 
Satellites are subject to significant operational risks while in orbit.  These risks include malfunctions, commonly referred to as anomalies, which have occurred and may occur in the future in our satellites and the satellites of other operators as a result of various factors, such as satellite design and manufacturing defects, problems with the power systems or control systems of the satellites, general failures resulting from operating satellites in the harsh environment of space and cyber-attacks on our satellites.
 

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Although we work closely with the satellite manufacturers to determine and eliminate the cause of anomalies in new satellites and provide for redundancies of many critical components in the satellites, we may not be able to prevent anomalies or outages from occurring and may experience anomalies and outages in the future, whether of the types described above or arising from the failure of other systems or components. The failure to perform of any of our manufacturers which provide in-orbit anomaly support for our satellites could result in our inability to determine, eliminate or manage anomalies for our satellites. Even if alternate in-orbit anomaly support services are available, we may have difficulty identifying them in a timely manner or we may incur significant additional expense in changing suppliers. Space Systems/Loral (“SSL”), a subsidiary of Maxar Techonologies Inc. (“Maxar”), provides in-orbit anomaly support for several of our satellites. A decision by Maxar to discontinue, wind down or otherwise significantly modify its geostationary communications satellite business could have a material adverse impact on the operation of several of our satellites, including our ability to remedy any anomalies or outages. 
 
Any single anomaly or outage or series of anomalies or outages could materially and adversely affect our ability to utilize the satellite, our operations, services and revenue as well as our relationships with current customers and our ability to attract new customers.  In particular, future anomalies or outages may result in, among other things, the loss of individual transponders/beams and/or functional solar array circuits on a satellite, a group of transponders/beams on that satellite or the entire satellite, depending on the nature of the anomaly or outage. Anomalies or outages may also reduce the expected capacity, commercial operation and/or useful life of a satellite, thereby reducing the revenue that could be generated by that satellite, or create additional expenses due to the need to provide replacement or back-up satellites or satellite capacity earlier than planned and could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
 
The loss of a satellite or other satellite malfunctions or anomalies or outages could have a material adverse effect on our financial performance, which we may not be able to mitigate by using available capacity on other satellites.  There can be no assurance that we can recover critical transmission capacity in the event one or more of our in-orbit satellites were to fail.  In addition, the loss of a satellite or other satellite malfunctions or anomalies or outages could affect our ability to comply with FCC and other regulatory obligations and our ability to fund the construction or acquisition of replacement satellites for our in-orbit fleet in a timely fashion, or at all.  There can be no assurance that anomalies or outages will not impact the remaining useful life and/or the commercial operation of any of the satellites in our fleet.  In addition, there can be no assurance that we can recover critical transmission capacity in the event one or more of our in-orbit satellites were to fail.  

Meteoroid events pose a potential threat to all in-orbit satellites.  The probability that meteoroids will damage those satellites increases significantly when the Earth passes through the particulate stream left behind by comets.  Occasionally, increased solar activity also poses a potential threat to all in-orbit satellites.
 
Some decommissioned satellites are in uncontrolled orbits, which pass through the geostationary belt at various points and present hazards to operational satellites, including our satellites.  We may be required to perform maneuvers to avoid collisions and these maneuvers may prove unsuccessful or could reduce the useful life of the satellite through the expenditure of fuel to perform these maneuvers.  The loss, damage or destruction of any of our satellites as a result of an electrostatic storm, collision with space debris, malfunction or other event could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
 
We generally do not carry in-orbit insurance on our satellites or payloads because we have assessed that the cost of insurance is not economical relative to the risk of failures. If one or more of our in-orbit uninsured satellites or payloads fail, we could be required to record significant impairment charges for the satellite or payload.
 
Our satellites have minimum design lives of 15 years, but could fail or suffer reduced capacity before then.
 
Generally, the minimum design life of each of our satellites is 15 years.  We can provide no assurance, however, as to the actual operational lives of our satellites, which may be shorter or longer than their design lives.  Our ability to earn revenue depends on the continued operation of our satellites, each of which has a limited useful life.  Several factors affect the useful lives of the satellites, including, among other things, the quality of their design and construction, the durability of their component parts, the ability to continue to maintain proper orbit and control over the satellite’s functions, the efficiency of the launch vehicle used, and the remaining on-board fuel following orbit insertion. In addition, continued improvements in satellite technology may make obsolete our existing satellites, or any satellites we may acquire in the future, prior to the end of their design lives.
 

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In the event of a failure or loss of any of our satellites, we may relocate another satellite and use it as a replacement for the failed or lost satellite, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.  Additionally, such relocation would require governmental approval.  We cannot be certain that we could obtain such governmental approval.  In addition, we cannot guarantee that another satellite will be available for use as a replacement for a failed or lost satellite, or that such relocation can be accomplished without a substantial utilization of fuel.  Any such utilization of fuel would reduce the operational life of the replacement satellite.
 
Our satellites under construction are subject to risks related to construction, technology, regulations and launch that could limit our ability to utilize these satellites and adversely affect our business and financial condition.
 
Satellite construction and launch are subject to significant risks, including delays, anomalies, launch failure and incorrect orbital placement.  The technologies in our satellite designs are very complex and difficulties in constructing our designs could result in delays in the deployment of our satellites or increased or unanticipated costs. There also can be no assurance that the technologies in our existing satellites or in new satellites that we design, acquire and build will work as we expect and/or will not become obsolete, that we will realize any or all of the anticipated benefits of our satellite designs or our new satellites, or that we will obtain all regulatory approvals required to operate our new or acquired satellites. In addition, certain launch vehicles that may be used by us have either unproven track records or have experienced launch failures in the past.  The risks of launch delay, launch anomalies and launch failure are usually greater when the launch vehicle does not have a track record of previous successful flights.  Launch anomalies and failures can result in significant delays in the deployment of satellites because of the need both to construct replacement satellites, which can take significant amounts of time, and to obtain other launch opportunities.  Such significant delays could materially and adversely affect our business, expenses and results of operations, our ability to meet regulatory or contractual required milestones, the availability and our use of other or replacement satellite resources and our ability to provide services to customers as capacity becomes full on existing satellites.  In addition, significant delays in a satellite program could give customers who have purchased or reserved capacity on that satellite a right to terminate their service contracts relating to the satellite.  We may not be able to accommodate affected customers on other satellites until a replacement satellite is available.  A customer’s termination of its service contracts with us as a result of a launch delay or failure would reduce our contracted backlog and our ability to generate revenue.  One of our potential launch services providers is a Russian Federation state-owned company.  Certain ongoing political events have created uncertainty as to the stability of U.S. and Russian Federation relations.  This could add to risks relative to scheduling uncertainties and timing.  If a launch delay, anomaly or failure were to occur, it could result in the revocation of the applicable license to operate the satellite, undermine our ability to implement our business strategy or develop or pursue existing or future business opportunities with applicable licenses and otherwise have a material adverse effect on our business, expenses, assets, revenue, results of operations and ability to fund future satellite procurement and launch opportunities.  Historically, we have not always carried launch insurance for the launch of our satellites and the occurrence of launch anomalies and failures, whether on our satellites or those of others, may significantly reduce our ability to place launch insurance for our satellites or make launch insurance uneconomical.
 
Our use of certain satellites is often dependent on satellite coordination agreements, which may be difficult to obtain.
 
Satellite transmissions and the use of frequencies often are dependent on coordination with other satellite systems and telecommunications providers operated by U.S. or foreign entities, including governments, and it can be difficult to determine the outcome of these coordination agreements with these other entities and governments.  The impact of a coordination agreement may result in the loss of rights to the use of certain frequencies or access to certain markets.  The significance of such a loss would vary and it can therefore be difficult to determine which portion of our revenue will be impacted.

In the event the international coordination process that is triggered by ITU filings under applicable rules is not successfully completed, or that the requests for modification of the broadcast satellite services plan regarding the allocation of orbital locations and frequencies are not granted by the ITU, we will have to operate the applicable satellite(s) on a non-interference basis, which could have an adverse impact on our business operations.  If we cannot do so, we may have to cease operating such satellite(s) at the affected orbital locations, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial position.  

Furthermore, the satellite coordination process is conducted under the guidance of the ITU radio regulations and the national regulations of the satellites involved in the coordination process.  These rules and regulations could be amended and could therefore materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

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We may face interference from other services sharing satellite spectrum.
 
The FCC and other regulators have adopted rules or may adopt rules in the future that allow non-geostationary orbit satellite services and/or fixed and mobile terrestrial systems to operate on a co-primary basis in the same frequency band as MSS and FSS.  In addition, the FCC and other regulators may make changes that could affect the use of spectrum for MSS and FSS.  Despite regulatory provisions designed to protect MSS and FSS operations from harmful interference, there can be no assurance that operations by other satellites or terrestrial communication services in the MSS and FSS bands will not interfere with our MSS and FSS operations and adversely affect our business.
 
Our dependence on outside contractors could result in delays related to the design, manufacture and launch of our new satellites, which could in turn adversely affect our operating results.
 
There are a limited number of manufacturers that are able to design and build satellites according to the technical specifications and standards of quality we require, including Airbus Defence and Space, Boeing Satellite Systems, Lockheed Martin, SSL and Thales Alenia Space.  There are also a limited number of launch service providers that are able to launch such satellites, including International Launch Services, Arianespace, Lockheed Martin Commercial Launch Services and Space Exploration.  The failure to perform of any of our manufacturers or launch service providers could increase the cost and result in the delay of the design, construction or launch of our satellites.  Even if alternate suppliers for such services are available, we may have difficulty identifying them in a timely manner or we may incur significant additional expense in changing suppliers, and this could result in difficulties or delays in the design, construction or launch of our satellites. For example, if SSL, the manufacturer of our EchoStar XXIV satellite, or any potential successor fails to meet or is delayed in meeting its contractual obligations regarding the timely manufacture and delivery of the satellite for any reason, including if Maxar decides to discontinue, wind down or otherwise significantly modify its geostationary communications satellite business, such failure could have a material adverse effect on completing the manufacture of the EchoStar XXIV satellite and, like any other delays in the design, construction or launch of our other satellites, could have a material adverse impact on our business operations, future revenues, financial position and prospects. 

RISKS RELATED TO OUR PRODUCTS AND TECHNOLOGY
 
If we are unable to properly respond to technological changes, our business could be significantly harmed.
 
Our business and the markets in which we operate are characterized by rapid technological changes, evolving industry standards and frequent product and service introductions and enhancements.  If we or our suppliers are unable to properly respond to or keep pace with technological developments, fail to develop new technologies, or if our competitors obtain or develop proprietary technologies that are perceived by the market as being superior to ours, our existing products and services may become obsolete and demand for our products and services may decline.  Even if we keep up with technological innovation, we may not meet the demands of the markets we serve.  Furthermore, after we have incurred substantial research and development costs, one or more of the technologies under our development, or under development by one or more of our strategic partners, could become obsolete prior to its introduction.  If we are unable to respond to or keep pace with technological advances on a cost-effective and timely basis, or if our products, applications or services are not accepted by the market, then our business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.
 
Our response to technological developments depends, to a significant degree, on the work of technically skilled employees.  Competition for the services of such employees has become more intense as demand for these types of employees grows.  We compete with other companies for these employees and although we strive to attract and retain these employees, we may not succeed in these respects. Additionally, if we were to lose certain key technically skilled employees, the loss of knowledge and intellectual capital might have an adverse impact on business, financial condition and results of operations.
 
We have made and will continue to make significant investments in research, development, and marketing for new products, services, satellites and related technologies, as well as entry into new business areas.  Investments in new technologies, satellites and business areas are inherently speculative and commercial success thereof depends on numerous factors including innovativeness, quality of service and support, and effectiveness of sales and marketing.  We may not achieve revenue or profitability from such investments for a number of years, if at all.  Moreover, even if such products, services, satellites, technologies and business areas become profitable, their operating margins may be minimal.

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Our future growth depends on growing demand for advanced technologies.
 
Future demand and effective delivery for our products will depend significantly on the growing demand for advanced technologies, such as broadband internet connectivity.  If the deployment of, or demand for, advanced technologies is not as widespread or as rapid as we or our customers expect, our revenue growth will be negatively impacted.
 
Our business depends on certain intellectual property rights and on not infringing the intellectual property rights of others.  The loss of our intellectual property rights or our infringement of the intellectual property rights of others could have a significant adverse impact on our business.
 
We rely on our patents, copyrights, trademarks and trade secrets, as well as licenses and other agreements with our vendors and other parties, to use our technologies, conduct our operations and sell our products and services.  Legal challenges to our intellectual property rights and claims by third parties of intellectual property infringement could require that we enter into royalty or licensing agreements on unfavorable terms, incur substantial monetary liability or be enjoined preliminarily or permanently from further use of the intellectual property in question or from the continuation of our businesses as currently conducted or as we plan to conduct it, which could require us to change our business practices or limit our ability to compete effectively or could otherwise have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations or prospects.  Even if any such challenges or claims prove to be without merit, they can be time-consuming and costly to defend and may divert management’s attention and resources away from our business.
 
Moreover, due to the rapid pace of technological change, we rely in part on technologies developed or licensed by third parties, and if we are unable to obtain or continue to obtain licenses or other required intellectual property rights from these third parties on reasonable terms, our business, financial position and results of operations could be adversely affected.  Technology licensed from third parties or developed by us may have undetected errors that impair the functionality or prevent the successful integration of our products or services.  As a result of any such changes or loss, we may need to incur additional development costs to ensure continued performance of our products or suffer delays until replacement technology, if available, can be obtained and integrated.
 
In addition, we work with third parties such as vendors, contractors and suppliers for the development and manufacture of components that are integrated into our products and our products may contain technologies provided to us by these third parties.  We may have little or no ability to determine in advance whether any such technology infringes the intellectual property rights of others, or whether such vendors have obtained or continue to obtain the appropriate licenses or other intellectual property rights to use such technology.  Our vendors, contractors and suppliers may not be required to indemnify us in the event that a claim of infringement is asserted against us, or they may be required to indemnify us only up to a maximum amount, above which we would be responsible for any further costs or damages.  Legal challenges to these intellectual property rights may impair our ability to use the products and technologies that we need in order to operate our business and may materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
 
We are, and may become, party to various lawsuits which, if adversely decided, could have a significant adverse impact on our business, particularly lawsuits regarding intellectual property.
 
We are, and may become, subject to various legal proceedings and claims, which arise both in and out of the ordinary course of our business.  Many entities, including some of our competitors, have or may in the future obtain patents and other intellectual property rights that cover or affect products or services related to those that we offer.  In general, if a court determines that one or more of our products or services infringes valid intellectual property rights held by others, we may be required to cease developing or marketing those products or services, to obtain licenses from the holders of the intellectual property at a material cost, to pay damages or to redesign those products or services in such a way as to avoid infringement.  If those intellectual property rights are held by a competitor, we may be unable to license the necessary intellectual property rights at any price, which could adversely affect our competitive position.
 
We may not be aware of all patents and other intellectual property rights that our products and services may potentially infringe.  In addition, patent applications in the U.S. and foreign countries are confidential until the appropriate patent governing body either publishes the application or issues a patent (whichever arises first) and, accordingly, our products may infringe claims contained in pending patent applications of which we are not aware.  Further, the process of determining definitively whether a patent claim is valid and whether a particular product infringes a valid patent claim often involves expensive and protracted litigation, even if we are ultimately successful on the merits.

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We cannot estimate the extent to which we may be required in the future to obtain licenses with respect to intellectual property rights held by others and the availability and cost of any such licenses.  Those costs, and their impact on our results of operations, could be material.  Damages in patent infringement cases can be substantial, and in certain circumstances, can be trebled.  To the extent that we are required to pay unanticipated royalties to third parties, these increased costs of doing business could negatively affect our liquidity and operating results.  We from time to time may defend patent infringement actions and may from time to time assert our own actions against parties we suspect of infringing our patents and trademarks.  We cannot be certain the courts will conclude these companies do not own the rights they claim, that these rights are not valid, or that our products and services do not infringe on these rights.  We also cannot be certain that we will be able to obtain licenses from these persons on commercially reasonable terms or, if we were unable to obtain such licenses, that we would be able to redesign our products and services to avoid infringement.  The legal costs associated with defending patent suits and pursuing patent claims against others may be borne by us if we are not awarded reimbursement through the legal process.  See further discussion under Item 1. Business — Patents and Trademarks and Item 3. Legal Proceedings of this Form 10-K.
 
Litigation or governmental proceedings could result in material adverse consequences, including judgments or settlements.
 
We are involved in lawsuits, regulatory inquiries, audits, consumer claims and governmental and other legal proceedings arising from of our business, including new products and services that we may offer.  Some of these proceedings may raise difficult and complicated factual and legal issues and can be subject to uncertainties and complexities.  The timing of the final resolutions to lawsuits, regulatory inquiries, audits, and governmental and other legal proceedings is typically uncertain.  Additionally, the possible outcomes of, or resolutions to, these proceedings could include adverse judgments, settlements, injunctions or liabilities, any of which could require substantial payments or have other adverse impacts on our revenue, results of operations or cash flow.
 
If the encryption and related security technology used in our products is compromised, sales of our products may decline.

Our customers use encryption and related security technology obtained from us or our suppliers in the products that they purchase from us to protect their data and products from unauthorized access to the features or functionalities of such products. Such encryption and related security technology has been compromised in the past and may be compromised in the future even though we continue to respond with significant investment in security measures, such as updates in security software, that are intended to make data theft more difficult. It has been our prior experience that security measures may only be effective for short periods of time or not at all. We cannot ensure that we will be successful in reducing or controlling theft of our customers’ data. As a result, sales of our products may decline, our reputation and customer relationship could be damaged and we may incur additional costs or financial liability in the future if security of our customers’ system is compromised.

We may be exposed to financial and reputational damage to our business by cybersecurity incidents.
 
We and third parties with whom we work face a constantly developing landscape of cybersecurity threats in which hackers and other parties use a complex assortment of techniques and methods to execute cyber-attacks, including but not limited to the use of stolen access credentials, social engineering, malware, ransomware, phishing, insider threats (which may be malicious or erroneous), structured query language injection attacks and distributed denial-of-service attacks. Cybersecurity incidents such as these have increased significantly in quantity and severity and are expected to continue to increase. Additionally, the risk of cyber-attacks and compromises will likely increase as we continue to expand our business into other areas of the world outside of North America, some of which are still developing their cybersecurity infrastructure maturity. Should we be affected by a material cyber-related incident, we may incur substantial costs and suffer other negative consequences, which may include:

significant remediation costs, such as liability for stolen assets or information, repairs of system damage and/or incentives to customers or business partners in an effort to maintain relationships after an attack;
significant increased cybersecurity protection costs, which may include the costs of making organizational changes, deploying additional personnel and protection technologies, training employees and engaging third party experts and consultants;
material increased liability due to financial or other harm inflicted on our partners;
loss of material revenues resulting from attacks on our satellites or technology, the unauthorized use of proprietary information or the failure to retain or attract customers following an attack;

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significant litigation and legal risks, including regulatory actions by state, federal and international regulators; and
loss of or damage to reputation.

Our business is subject to varying degrees of regulation that include programs designed to review our protections against cybersecurity threats and risks. If it is determined that our systems do not reasonably protect our partners’ assets and data and/or that we have violated these regulations, we could be subject to enforcement activity and sanctions.

We regularly review and revise our internal cybersecurity policies and procedures, invest in and maintain internal and external cybersecurity teams and systems and software to detect, deter, prevent and/or mitigate cyber-attacks and review, modify and supplement our defenses through the use of various services, programs and outside vendors. It is impossible, however, for us to know when or if any particular cyber-attack may arise or the impact on our business and operations of any such incident. We expect to continue to incur increasing costs in preparing our infrastructure and maintaining it to resist any such attacks. There can be no assurance that we can successfully detect, deter, prevent or mitigate the effects of cyber-attacks, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, costs, operations, prospects, results of operation or financial position. Furthermore, the amount and scope of insurance that we maintain against losses resulting from these events may not be sufficient to compensate us adequately for any disruptions to our business or otherwise cover our losses, including reputational harm and negative publicity as well as any litigation liability. 

Compliance with data privacy laws may be costly, and non-compliance with such laws may result in significant liability.

The personal information and data that we process and store is increasingly subject to the data security and data privacy laws of many jurisdictions. These laws may conflict with one another, and many of them are subject to frequent modification and differing interpretations. The laws impose a significant compliance burden and complying with them has required us to change our business practices or the functionality of our products and services.  Although we have made efforts to design our policies, procedures, and systems to comply with the current requirements of applicable state, federal, and foreign laws, changes to applicable laws and regulations and the implementation of new laws and regulations in this area could subject us to additional regulation and oversight, any of which could significantly increase our operating costs, restrict our business operations and result in changes that are adverse to our customers. In addition, violations of these laws can result in significant fines, penalties, claims by regulators or other third parties, and damage to our brand and business.
 
If our products contain defects, we could be subject to significant costs to correct such defects and our product and network service contracts could be delayed or cancelled, which could adversely affect our revenue.
 
The products and the networks we deploy are highly complex, and some may contain defects when first introduced or when new versions or enhancements are released, despite testing and our quality control procedures.  For example, our products may contain software “bugs” that can unexpectedly interfere with their operation.  Defects may also occur in components and products that we purchase from third parties.  In addition, many of our products and network services are designed to interface with our customers’ existing networks, each of which has different specifications and utilize multiple protocol standards.  Our products and services must interoperate with the other products and services within our customers’ networks, as well as with future products and services that might be added to these networks, to meet our customers’ requirements.  There can be no assurance that we will be able to detect and fix all defects in the products and networks we sell.  The occurrence of any defects, errors or failures in our products or network services could result in (i) additional costs to correct such defects; (ii) cancellation of orders and lost revenue; (iii) a reduction in revenue backlog; (iv) product returns or recalls; (v) diversion of our resources; (vi) the issuance of credits to customers and other losses to us, our customers or end-users; (vii) liability for harm to persons and property caused by defects in or failures of our products or services; and (viii) harm to our reputation if we fail to detect or effectively address such issues through design, testing or warranty repairs.  Any of these occurrences could also result in the loss of or delay in market acceptance of our products and services and loss of sales, which would harm our reputation and our business and materially adversely affect our revenue and profitability.

RISKS RELATED TO THE REGULATION OF OUR BUSINESS
 
Our business is subject to risks of adverse government regulation.

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Our business is subject to varying degrees of regulation in the U.S. by the FCC, and other federal, state and local entities, and in foreign countries by similar entities and internationally by the ITU.  These regulations are subject to the administrative and political process and do change, for political and other reasons, from time to time and may limit or constrain and/or have other adverse effects on and implications for our business and operations.  The U.S. and foreign countries in which we currently, or may in the future, operate may not authorize us access to all of the spectrum that we need to provide service in a particular country. Moreover, the U.S. and a substantial number of foreign countries in which we have, or may in the future make, an investment, regulate, in varying degrees, the ownership of satellites and other telecommunication facilities/networks and foreign investment in telecommunications companies.  Violations of laws or regulations may result in various sanctions including fines, loss of authorizations and the denial of applications for new authorizations or for the renewal of existing authorizations.  Further material changes in law and regulatory requirements may also occur, and there can be no assurance that our business and the business of our subsidiaries and affiliates will not be adversely affected by future legislation, new regulation or deregulation.  The failure to obtain or comply with the authorizations and regulations governing our operations could have a material adverse effect on our ability to generate revenue or pursue our business strategies and our overall competitive position and could result in our suffering serious harm to our reputation.
 
Our business depends on regulatory authorizations issued by the FCC and state and foreign regulators that can expire, be revoked or modified, and applications for licenses and other authorizations that may not be granted.
 
Generally all satellite, earth stations and other licenses granted by the FCC and most other countries are subject to expiration unless renewed by the regulatory agency.  Our satellite licenses are currently set to expire at various times.  In addition, we occasionally receive special temporary authorizations that are granted for limited periods of time (e.g., 180 days or less) and subject to possible renewal.  Generally, our licenses and special temporary authorizations have been renewed on a routine basis, but there can be no assurance that this will continue.  In addition, we must obtain new licenses from the FCC and other countries’ regulators for the operation of new satellites that we may build and/or acquire. There can be no assurance that the FCC or other regulators will continue granting applications for new licenses or for the renewal of existing ones.  If the FCC or other regulators were to cancel, revoke, suspend, or fail to renew any of our licenses or authorizations, fail to grant or impose conditions on our applications for FCC or other licenses, it could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.  Specifically, loss of a frequency authorization or limitations on our ability to use the frequencies we currently use and/or intend to use in the future would reduce the amount of spectrum available to us, potentially reducing the amount of services we provide to our customers.  The significance of such a loss of authorizations would vary based upon, among other things, the orbital location, the frequency band and the availability of replacement spectrum.  In addition, the legislative and executive branches of the U.S. government and foreign governments often consider legislation and regulatory requirements that could affect us, as could the actions that the FCC and foreign regulatory bodies take.  We cannot predict the outcomes of these legislative or regulatory proceedings or their effect on our business.
 
In addition, third parties have or may oppose some of our license applications and pending and future requests for extensions, modifications, waivers and approvals of our licenses.  Even if we have fully complied with all of the required reporting, filing and other requirements in connection with our authorizations, it is possible a regulator could decline to grant certain of our applications or requests for authority, or could revoke, terminate, condition or decline to modify, extend or renew certain of our authorizations or licenses.

Further, we rely on subcontractors to provide us with certain goods and services that may require their compliance with our licenses and other authorizations. In the event that their provision of these goods and services are not in compliance with such licenses and other authorizations, we may be subject to fines or other penalties and/or the applicable regulator may cancel, revoke, suspend, or fail to renew any of our licenses or authorizations.
 

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We may face difficulties in accurately assessing and collecting contributions towards the USF.
 
Because our customer contracts often include both telecommunications services, which create obligations to contribute to the USF, and other goods and services, which do not, it can be difficult to determine what portion of our revenue forms the basis for our required contribution to the USF and the amount that we can recover from our customers.  If the FCC, which oversees the USF, or a court or other governmental entity were to determine that we computed our USF contribution obligation incorrectly or passed the wrong amount onto our customers, we could become subject to additional assessments, liabilities, or other financial penalties.  In addition, the FCC is considering substantial changes to its USF contribution and distribution rules.  These changes could impact our future contribution obligations and those of third parties that provide communication services to our business.  Any such change to the USF contribution rules could adversely affect our costs of providing service to our customers.  In addition, changes to the USF distribution rules could intensify the competition we face by offering subsidies to competing firms and/or technologies.

Restrictions on immigration or increased enforcement of immigration laws could limit our access to qualified and skilled professionals, increase our cost of doing business or otherwise disrupt our operations.

The success of our business is dependent on our ability to recruit engineers and other professionals. Immigration laws in the U.S. and other countries in which we operate are subject to legislative changes, as well as variations in the standards of application and enforcement due to political forces and economic conditions. It is difficult to predict the political and economic events that could affect immigration laws, or the restrictive impact they could have on obtaining or renewing work visas for our professionals. If immigration laws are changed or if new more restrictive government regulations are enacted or increased, our access to qualified and skilled professionals may be limited, the costs of doing business may increase and our operations may be disrupted.

RISKS RELATING TO THE BSS TRANSACTION

Certain of our directors and executive officers have interests in the BSS Transaction that may be different from, or in addition to, those of our other stockholders.

Certain of our directors and executive officers have interests in the BSS Transaction that may be different from, or in addition to, the interests of our stockholders generally. Our directors and executive officers who own shares of our common stock participated in the Distribution and the Merger on the same terms as our other stockholders. Additionally, Mr. Ergen, director and Chairman of both us and DISH, serves as a director and executive officer of BSS Corp. following the consummation of the BSS Transaction. The EchoStar parties that approved the BSS Transaction, as described below, were aware of and considered these interests, among other things, in deciding to approve the terms of the Master Transaction Agreement and the BSS Transaction.

The BSS Transaction was approved, in accordance with our longstanding related party transaction policy, by (i) our independent management, (ii) our non-interlocking directors (i.e., directors who are not also directors or employees of DISH Network), with our director, Mr. R. Stanton Dodge, recusing himself to avoid the appearance of any potential conflict resulting from his prior employment with DISH Network and our director, Mr. Anthony M. Federico, recusing himself to avoid the appearance of any potential conflict resulting from his service on DISH’s special litigation committee, (iii) our audit committee, with Mr. Federico recusing himself and, after all such approvals were obtained (iv) our board of directors, with, our chairman, Mr. Ergen, recusing himself. Applicable portions of the BSS Transaction were also approved by HSS’ board of directors.

If the Distribution and the Merger do not qualify as a tax‑free distribution and merger under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”), then we and/or our stockholders may be required to pay substantial U.S. federal income taxes and under certain circumstances we may have indemnification obligations to DISH Network.

The parties to the BSS Transaction received a tax opinion from their respective counsels as to the tax‑free nature of the transactions. They did not obtain a private letter ruling from the IRS with respect to the Distribution and the Merger and instead are relying solely on their respective tax opinions for comfort that the Distribution and the Merger qualify for tax‑free treatment for U.S. federal income tax purposes under the Code.

The tax opinions were based on, among other things, certain undertakings made by us and DISH Network, as well as certain representations and assumptions as to factual matters made by us, DISH Network, and Mr. and Mrs. Ergen. The failure of any factual representation or assumption to be true, correct and complete, or any undertaking to be fully

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complied with, could affect the validity of the tax opinions. An opinion of counsel represents counsel’s best legal judgment, is not binding on the IRS or the courts, and the IRS or the courts may not agree with the conclusions set forth in the tax opinions. In addition, the tax opinions were based on then-current law, and cannot be relied upon if current law changes with retroactive effect.

If the Distribution does not qualify as a tax‑free distribution under Section 355 of the Code, then the Distribution would be taxable to our stockholders, we would recognize a substantial gain on the Distribution, we and our stockholders could incur significant U.S. federal income tax liabilities, and we could be required to indemnify DISH Network for the tax on such gain if the failure of the Distribution to so qualify is the result of certain actions or misrepresentations by us, but we will not be required to indemnify any of our stockholders. In the event we are required to indemnify DISH Network for taxes incurred in connection with the BSS Transaction, the indemnification obligation could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial conditions, results or operations and cash flow.

Even if the Distribution otherwise qualifies as a tax-free distribution, the Distribution would be taxable to us (but not to our stockholders) pursuant to Section 355(e) of the Code if one or more persons acquire a 50% or greater interest (measured by vote or value) in our or BSS Corp.’s stock, directly or indirectly (including through acquisitions of the BSS Common Stock or DISH Common Stock after the completion of the BSS Transaction), as part of a plan or series of related transactions that includes the Distribution. If there is a change of control of DISH Network or BSS Corp. after the completion of the BSS Transaction or a transfer of stock or assets of DISH Network or BSS Corp. that results in the Distribution being taxable to us under Section 355(e) of the Code, DISH Network would be required to indemnify us (but not our stockholders) for such taxes only if DISH Network took an action or knowingly facilitated, consented to or assisted with an action by a DISH shareholder that caused the Distribution to fail to qualify as a tax-free distribution. If the Merger were taxable, our stockholders would be considered to have made a taxable sale of their BSS Common Stock to DISH Network and, consequently, our stockholders would recognize taxable gain or loss on their receipt of DISH Common Stock in the Merger. In addition, the Merger being taxable could cause the Distribution to fail to qualify as a tax-free distribution.

A putative class action lawsuit relating to the BSS Transaction has been filed against us, DISH Network, Mr. Ergen and certain of our officers and other lawsuits related to the BSS Transaction may be filed against us, DISH Network and other persons which could result in substantial costs.

On July 2, 2019, a complaint was filed by purported EchoStar stockholders. See Note 20 in our Accompanying Consolidated Financial Statements for more information about litigation related to the BSS Transaction that has been commenced prior to the date of this report. There can be no assurance that additional complaints will not be filed with respect to the BSS Transaction.

Even if this lawsuit and any others that may be filed are without merit, defending against these claims can result in substantial costs and divert management time and resources. An adverse judgment could result in monetary damages, which could have a negative impact on our liquidity and financial condition.

Our ability to operate and control our satellites is subject to risks related to DISH Network’s operation of the BSS Business.

In connection with the BSS Transaction, we transferred our satellite operation centers, which are used to monitor and control our satellites, to DISH Network.  DISH Network may not be able to successfully or profitably operate, maintain and manage the BSS Business and its employees, including the operations and employees of the satellite operations centers.  DISH Network may not be able to maintain uniform standards, controls, procedures and policies or comply with regulations with respect to the satellite operations centers, and this may lead to operational failures or inefficiencies. A failure or inefficiency at any of the satellite operations centers could cause a significant loss of service for our customers or might cause the transmission of incorrect commands to the affected satellite(s), which could lead to a temporary or permanent degradation in satellite performance or to the loss of one or more of our satellites. Any such failure could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

We may be more susceptible to adverse events as a result of the BSS Transaction.

We have divested the BSS Business and our business will be subject to increased concentration of risks that affect our retained businesses. We are now a smaller, less diversified and more narrowly focused business, which makes us more vulnerable to changing market and economic conditions. Operating as a smaller entity may reduce or eliminate some of the benefits and synergies which previously existed across our business platforms, including our operating

30


diversity, purchasing and borrowing leverage, available capital, and relationships and opportunities to pursue integrated strategies within our businesses and attract, retain and motivate key employees. In addition, as a smaller company, our ability to absorb costs may be negatively impacted, including the significant cost of the BSS Transaction and/or litigations or other adverse rulings or proceedings, and we may be unable to obtain financing, goods or services at prices or on terms as favorable as those obtained prior to the BSS Transaction. Any of these factors could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations, cash flows, business prospects and the trading price of our common stock.

We might not be able to engage in certain strategic transactions because we have agreed to certain restrictions to comply with U.S. federal income tax requirements for a tax‑free spin‑off.

To preserve the intended tax treatment of the Distribution, we have agreed to comply with certain restrictions under current U.S. federal income tax laws for spin‑offs, including: (i) refraining from engaging in certain transactions that would result in a fifty percent or greater change by vote or by value in our stock ownership; (ii) continuing to own and manage our historic business; and (iii) limiting sales or redemptions of our common stock. These restrictions could result in our inability to respond effectively to competitive pressures, industry developments and future opportunities, prevent us from pursuing otherwise attractive business opportunities and/or harm our business, financial results and operations. If these restrictions, among others, are not followed, the Distribution could be taxable to us and possibly our stockholders. In addition, we could be required to indemnify DISH Network for any tax liability incurred by DISH Network as a result of our non‑compliance with these restrictions, and such indemnity obligations could be substantial.

OTHER RISKS
 
We are controlled by one principal stockholder who is our Chairman.
 
Charles W. Ergen, our Chairman, beneficially owns approximately 51% of our total equity securities (assuming conversion of only the Class B common stock beneficially owned by Mr. Ergen into Class A common stock and giving effect to the exercise of options held by Mr. Ergen that are either currently exercisable as of, or may become exercisable within 60 days after, February 10, 2020) and beneficially owns approximately 91% of the total voting power of all classes of shares (assuming no conversion of any Class B common stock and giving effect to the exercise of options held by Mr. Ergen that are either currently exercisable as of, or may become exercisable within 60 days after, February 10, 2020).  Through his beneficial ownership of our equity securities, Mr. Ergen has the ability to elect a majority of our directors and to control all other matters requiring the approval of our stockholders.  As a result of Mr. Ergen’s voting power, we are a “controlled company” as defined in the NASDAQ listing rules and, therefore, are not subject to NASDAQ requirements that would otherwise require us to have (i) a majority of independent directors; (ii) a nominating committee composed solely of independent directors; (iii) compensation of our executive officers determined by a majority of the independent directors or a compensation committee composed solely of independent directors; (iv) a compensation committee charter which provides the compensation committee with the authority and funding to retain compensation consultants and other advisors; and/or (v) director nominees selected, or recommended for the Board’s selection, either by a majority of the independent directors or a nominating committee composed solely of independent directors.

We have potential conflicts of interest with DISH Network due to our common ownership.
 
Questions relating to conflicts of interest may arise between DISH Network and us in a number of areas relating to our past and ongoing relationships.  Areas in which conflicts of interest between DISH Network and us could arise include, but are not limited to, the following:
 
Cross directorships and stock ownership.  Charles W. Ergen serves as the Chairman of our and DISH’s board of directors, is employed by both companies and has fiduciary duties to our and DISH’s shareholders.  Mr. Ergen may have actual or apparent conflicts of interest with respect to matters involving or affecting each company.  For example, there is potential for a conflict of interest when we or DISH Network look at acquisitions and other corporate opportunities that may be suitable for both companies.  In addition, some of our directors and officers, including Mr. Ergen, own DISH stock and options to purchase DISH stock, certain of which they acquired or were granted prior to our spin-off from DISH in 2008 (the “Spin-off”). These ownership interests could create actual, apparent or potential conflicts of interest when these individuals are faced with decisions that could have different implications for our company and DISH Network.  

31


Intercompany agreements with DISH Network.  We have entered into various agreements with DISH Network.  Pursuant to certain agreements, we obtain certain products, services and rights from DISH Network; DISH Network obtains certain products, services and rights from us; and we and DISH Network indemnify each other against certain liabilities arising from our respective businesses. Generally, the amounts paid for products and services provided under the agreements are based on cost plus a fixed margin, which varies depending on the nature of the products and services provided.  Certain other intercompany agreements cover matters such as tax sharing and our responsibility for certain liabilities previously undertaken by DISH Network for certain of our businesses.  We have also entered into certain commercial agreements with DISH Network.  The terms of certain of these agreements were established while we were a wholly-owned subsidiary of DISH and were not the result of arm’s length negotiations.  The allocation of assets, liabilities, rights, indemnifications and other obligations between DISH Network and us under certain agreements we have entered into with DISH Network may not necessarily reflect what two unaffiliated parties might have agreed to.  Had these agreements been negotiated with unaffiliated third parties, their terms may have been more or less favorable to us.  In addition, DISH Network or its affiliates will likely continue to enter into transactions, including joint ventures, acquisitions, dispositions and other strategic initiatives and transactions, with us or other affiliates.  Although the terms of any such transactions will be established based upon negotiations between us and DISH Network and, when appropriate, subject to approval by a committee of non-interlocking directors or in certain instances non-interlocking management, there can be no assurance that the terms of any such transactions will be as favorable to us or our subsidiaries or affiliates as may otherwise be obtained in negotiations between unaffiliated third parties.
Competition for business opportunities.  DISH Network may have interests in various companies that have subsidiaries or controlled affiliates that own or operate domestic or foreign services that may compete with services offered by our businesses.  DISH Network also has a distribution agreement with ViaSat, a competitor of our Hughes segment, to sell services similar to those offered by our Hughes segment.  We may also compete with DISH Network when we participate in auctions for spectrum or orbital slots for our satellites or other business opportunities.
 
We may not be able to resolve any potential conflicts of interest with DISH Network and, even if we do so, the resolution may be less favorable to us than if we were dealing with an unaffiliated party.
 
We do not have any agreements not to compete with DISH Network.  However, many of our potential customers who compete with DISH Network have historically perceived us as a competitor due to our affiliation with DISH Network.  There can be no assurance that we will be successful in entering into any commercial relationships with potential customers who are competitors of DISH Network (particularly if we continue to be perceived as affiliated with DISH Network as a result of common ownership, certain shared management services and other arrangements with DISH Network).
 
It may be difficult for a third party to acquire us, even if doing so may be beneficial to our shareholders, because of our capital structure and certain provisions of the BSS Transaction.
 
Certain provisions of our articles of incorporation and bylaws may discourage, delay or prevent a change in control of our company that a shareholder may consider favorable.  These provisions include the following:
 
a capital structure with multiple classes of common stock:  a Class A that entitles the holders to one vote per share; a Class B that entitles the holders to ten votes per share; a Class C that entitles the holders to one vote per share, except upon a change in control of our company in which case the holders of Class C are entitled to ten votes per share; and a non-voting Class D;
a provision that authorizes the issuance of “blank check” preferred stock, which could be issued by our board of directors to increase the number of outstanding shares and thwart a takeover attempt;
a provision limiting who may call special meetings of shareholders; and
a provision establishing advance notice requirements for nominations of candidates for election to our board of directors or for proposing matters that can be acted upon by shareholders at shareholder meetings.
 
As discussed above, Mr. Ergen beneficially owns approximately 51% of our total equity securities and approximately 91% of the total voting power of all classes of shares and such ownership may make it impractical for any third party to obtain control of us.


32


In addition, pursuant to our articles of incorporation we have a significant amount of authorized and unissued stock that would allow our board of directors to issue shares to persons friendly to current management, thereby protecting the continuity of management, or which could be used to dilute the stock ownership of persons seeking to obtain control of us.

Additionally, in order to preserve the intended tax treatment of the Distribution, we have agreed to comply with certain restrictions under current U.S. federal income tax laws for spinoffs, including, refraining from engaging in certain transactions that would result in a fifty percent or greater change by vote or by value in our stock ownership. This restriction could discourage third parties from seeking to acquire us.
 
Our articles of incorporation designate the Eighth Judicial District Court of Clark County of the State of Nevada as the sole and exclusive forum for certain types of actions and proceedings that may be initiated by our stockholders, which could limit our stockholders’ ability to obtain a favorable judicial forum for disputes with us or our directors, officers, employees or agents.

Our articles of incorporation provide that, unless we consent in writing to an alternative forum, the Eighth Judicial District Court of Clark County of the State of Nevada will be the sole and exclusive forum for any and all actions, suits or proceedings, whether civil, administrative or investigative or that asserts any claim or counterclaim brought in our name or on our behalf, asserting a claim of breach of a fiduciary duty owed by any of our directors, officers, employees or agents to us or our stockholders, arising or asserting a claim arising pursuant to any provision of the Nevada Restated Statutes Chapters 78 or 92A, our articles of incorporation or our bylaws, interpreting, applying, enforcing or determining the validity of our articles of incorporation or bylaws or asserting a claim that is governed by the internal affairs doctrine. Any person purchasing or otherwise acquiring any interest in any shares of our capital stock shall be deemed to have notice of and to have consented to this provision of our articles of incorporation. This choice of forum provision may limit our stockholders’ ability to bring certain claims, including claims against our directors, officers or employees, in a judicial forum that the stockholder finds favorable and therefore the choice of forum provision may discourage lawsuits with respect to such claims. Stockholders who do bring a claim in the Eighth Judicial District Court of Clark County could face additional litigation costs in pursuing any such claim, particularly if they do not reside in or near Nevada. The Eighth Judicial District Court of Clark County may also reach different judgments or results than would other courts, including courts where a stockholder considering an action may be located or would otherwise choose to bring the action, and such judgments or results may be more favorable to us than to our stockholders. Alternatively, if a court were to find this provision of our articles of incorporation inapplicable to, or unenforceable in respect of, one or more of the specified types of actions or proceedings, we may incur additional costs associated with resolving such matters in other jurisdictions, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.

We may face other risks described from time to time in periodic and current reports we file with the SEC.

ITEM 1B.     UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS
 
None.
 

33


ITEM 2.    PROPERTIES
 
Our principal executive offices are located at 100 Inverness Terrace East, Englewood, Colorado 80112-5308 and our telephone number is (303) 706-4000.  The following table sets forth certain information concerning our principal properties related to our Hughes segment (“Hughes”) and EchoStar Satellite Services segment (“ESS”) and to our other operations and administrative functions (“Corporate and Other”) as of December 31, 2019We operate various facilities in the United States and abroad.  We believe that our facilities are well maintained and are sufficient to meet our current and projected needs. 
Location
 
Segment(s)
 
Function
 
 
 
 
 
Owned:
 
 
 
 
Englewood, Colorado
 
ESS/Corporate and Other
 
Corporate headquarters and engineering offices
Germantown, Maryland
 
Hughes
 
Hughes corporate headquarters, engineering offices, network operations and shared hubs
Griesheim, Germany
 
Hughes/Corporate and Other
 
Shared hub, operations, administrative offices and warehouse
 
 
 
 
 
Leased:
 
 
 
 
Gilbert, Arizona
 
Hughes
 
Gateways
San Diego, California
 
Hughes
 
Engineering and sales offices
Englewood, Colorado
 
Hughes
 
Gateways and equipment
Gaithersburg, Maryland
 
Hughes
 
Manufacturing and testing facilities and logistics offices
Gaithersburg, Maryland
 
Hughes
 
Engineering and administrative offices
Southfield, Michigan
 
Hughes
 
Shared hub and regional network management center
Las Vegas, Nevada
 
Hughes
 
Shared hub, antennae yards, gateway, backup network operation and control center for Hughes corporate headquarters
Cheyenne, Wyoming
 
Hughes/ESS
 
Satellite access center, gateways and equipment
Barueri, Brazil
 
Hughes/Corporate and Other
 
Shared hub, warehouse, operations center and spacecraft operations center
Sao Paulo, Brazil
 
Hughes
 
Hughes Brazil corporate headquarters, sales offices and warehouse
Bangalore, India
 
Hughes
 
Engineering office and office space
Gurgaon, India
 
Hughes
 
Administrative offices, shared hub, operations, warehouse, and development center
New Delhi, India
 
Hughes
 
Hughes India corporate headquarters
Milton Keynes, United Kingdom
 
Hughes
 
Hughes Europe corporate headquarters and operations

ITEM 3.     LEGAL PROCEEDINGS

For a discussion of legal proceedings, see Note 20 in our Accompanying Consolidated Financial Statements.

ITEM 4.    MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES
 
Not applicable.

34


PART II

ITEM 5.    MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
 
Market Price of and Dividends on the Registrant’s Common Equity and Related Stockholder Matters
 
Market InformationOur Class A common stock is publicly traded on the NASDAQ Global Select Market under the symbol “SATS.”
 
Holders.  As of February 10, 2020, there were 50,115,719 shares of our Class A common stock outstanding held by 7,907 holders of record of our Class A common stock, not including stockholders who beneficially own Class A common stock held in nominee or street name. As of February 10, 2020, there were 47,687,039 shares of our Class B common stock outstanding, of which 1,348,249 shares were held by Charles W. Ergen, our Chairman and 46,338,790 shares were held in trusts and entities established for the benefit of Mr. Ergen’s family.  There is currently no established trading market for our Class B common stock.
 
Dividends.  We have not paid any cash dividends on our common stock in the past two years.  We currently do not intend to declare dividends on our common stock.  Payment of any future dividends will depend upon our earnings, capital requirements, contractual restrictions and other factors the board of directors considers appropriate.  We currently intend to retain our earnings, if any, to support operations, future growth and expansion, although we have repurchased and may, in the future, repurchase shares of our common stock from time to time.  Our ability to declare dividends is affected by the covenants in our subsidiary Hughes Satellite Systems Corporation’s indentures. See further discussion under Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations — Liquidity and Capital Resources in this Form 10-K.
 
Securities Authorized for Issuance Under Equity Compensation Plans.  See Item 12. Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters in this Form 10-K.
 
Purchases of Equity Securities by the Issuer and Affiliated Purchasers
 
Our Board of Directors previously authorized stock repurchases of up to $500.0 million of our Class A common stock through and including December 31, 2019. On October 29, 2019, our Board of Directors terminated its prior authorization and authorized us to repurchase under this authorization up to $500.0 million of our Class A common stock through and including December 31, 2020. Purchases under our repurchase authorization may be made through privately negotiated transactions, open market repurchases, one or more trading plans in accordance with Rule 10b5-1 under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or otherwise, subject to market conditions and other factors.  We may elect to purchase some or all of, or not to purchase the maximum amount or any of, the remaining shares allowable under this program and we may also enter into additional share repurchase programs authorized by our Board of Directors. During the year ended December 31, 2019, we did not repurchase any common stock under this program.

35


ITEM 6.    SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA
 
The following tables present selected information relating to our consolidated financial condition and results of operations for the past five years.  The selected financial data should be read in conjunction with Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations and our Accompanying Consolidated Financial Statements. Historical financial data presented below may not be indicative of future financial condition.
 
 
For the years ended December 31,
Statements of Operations Data:
 
2019
 
2018
 
2017(1)
 
2016
 
2015
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Total revenue (2) (3)
 
$
1,886,081

 
$
1,762,638

 
$
1,525,155

 
$
1,447,223

 
$
1,485,942

Total costs and expenses
 
1,813,004

 
1,726,501

 
1,494,593

 
1,325,364

 
1,380,939

Operating income (loss)
 
$
73,077

 
$
36,137

 
$
30,562

 
$
121,859

 
$
105,003

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Net income (loss) from continuing operations attributable to EchoStar common stock
 
$
(102,318
)
 
$
(134,204
)
 
$
123,188

 
$
43,886

 
$
59,189

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Basic earnings (losses) per share - continuing operations
 
$
(1.06
)
 
$
(1.39
)
 
$
1.29

 
$
0.47

 
$
0.64

Diluted earnings (losses) per share - continuing operations
 
$
(1.06
)
 
$
(1.39
)
 
$
1.27

 
$
0.46

 
$
0.63


 
 
As of December 31,
Balance Sheet Data:
 
2019
 
2018
 
2017(1)
 
2016
 
2015
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Cash, cash equivalents and current marketable investments securities
 
$
2,460,054

 
$
3,210,458

 
$
3,245,617

 
$
3,092,881

 
$
1,527,883

Total assets
 
$
7,154,298

 
$
8,661,294

 
$
8,750,014

 
$
9,008,859

 
$
6,572,463

Total debt and finance lease obligations
 
$
2,390,219

 
$
3,305,784

 
$
3,371,961

 
$
3,360,387

 
$
1,861,384

Total stockholders’ equity
 
$
3,745,553

 
$
4,155,474

 
$
4,177,385

 
$
4,006,805

 
$
3,781,642


 
 
For the years ended December 31,
Cash Flow Data:
 
2019
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
 
2015
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Net cash flows from:
 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

Operating activities
 
$
656,322

 
$
734,522

 
$
726,892

 
$
803,343

 
$
776,451

Investing activities
 
$
821,958

 
$
(2,098,480
)
 
$
(867,932
)
 
$
(632,199
)
 
$
(275,311
)
Financing activities
 
$
(885,311
)
 
$
(136,563
)
 
$
72

 
$
1,475,689

 
$
(120,257
)
(1)
The 2017 Tax Act increased the compl